Dalton et al. reported the average production costs and returns for 2004 from a sample of 30
organic dairy farms in Vermont and Maine. They reported a total cost for organic milk
production of $22.58 per cwt, before a deduction for unpaid operator labor and management,
which was not significantly different from milk revenues. Thus organic milk production did not
generate any return to unpaid labor and management nor did it produce a positive return to farm
assets or equity.
Increasing attention has also been given to
dissecting and understanding diversity in relation to genes underlying important agronomic
traits in a number of crops. Molecular phylogenetics and genetic diversity analysis can help
to clarify the taxonomic identity and evolutionary relationships of the wild relatives of crop
species. These methods can also help prevent misidentification and carefully plan effective
germplasm management strategies.
Because the insurance industry employs both captive and independent producers in its various models of
product distribution, understanding the insurer-producer relationship is critical when determining the
insurer’s responsibility for its appointed producers’ social media communications. As such, if the content
of an appointed producer’s social media communication can be attributed to a specific carrier, regulators
will also attribute the communication to the carrier.
In terms of detail, the Cairns Group inter alia demands that payments under environmental
programs should be less than the extra costs involved in complying. A controversial point could
be that the EU’s environmental programs offer income foregone, additional costs as well as the
financial incentive necessary to encourage farmers to make agri-environmental undertakings. The
new suggestion brought forward by Cairns could thus be seen as an indicator that the Group is
considering current practice, like by the EU, as too generous regarding the amount of the overall
Before discussing our methodology, we motivate our study with a table illustrating bank
adaptation and soft credit at work. The data are from a large Greek bank, covering tens
of thousands applications by individuals for credit products.
4 Columns 1 and 2 show the
monthly declared income and monthly payments on household credit products for self-employed
individuals across di§erent industries, and column 3 presents the ratio of payments-to-income.
On average, self-employed Greeks spend 82% of their monthly reported income servicing debt.
The majority of lead contaminated sites in the Blacksmith Institute’s database are found in Africa, South
America, South and Southeast Asia, but the problem of lead pollution plagues most developing countries
worldwide. Its uses are varied; in Latin America it has often been utilized for ceramic glazing and in other
countries leaded gasoline is still used. In the U.S. lead paint is the cause of a majority of lead exposures and
such exposures can be expected in most countries since paint pigments using lead were commonly used
worldwide up until a few decades ago.
Faulty construction or neglected maintenance is the primary cause of structural hazards in homes and
schools. Faulty construction leads to building defects that increase the likelihood of structural hazards and fires,
which in turn increase the risk of falls, burns, and other injuries. These defects also lead to inadequate ventilation
and moisture accumulation; both factors raise the levels of asthma triggers in the home (38, 52).
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are
endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that
are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by
initial capital letters.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information
contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any
kind, either expressed or implied.
Second, system owners or investors with limited state tax burdens may not be able to take
full advantage of the ITC. Thus, a tax credit may have little value to low- and moderate-
income residents and others who have a small state-tax liability. While nearly all state tax-
credit programs allow the unused portion of the credit to be carried over for five or 10 years,
spreading the credit over time reduces its benefit.
Third, ITCs reward the purchase and installation of technologies regardless of potential or
actual energy production. Federal ITCs implemented in the 1970s and 1980s...
The adjustable keyboard surfaces in cluster workstations also fix
the position of the computer, making the workstation less flexible
for other tasks. The optimum positioning of the VDU monitor to
minimise screen reflections and background glare is also inhibited.
Convenient height adjustment for the whole of the work surface
should be aimed for.
Before embarking on policy reforms to improve access, national policy-makers need to have
a clear understanding of the factors that are contributing to high prices and poor avail-
ability; this will help ensure that their response is tailored to the national context. Table 1.3
lists a number of possible policy options and specific actions that are open to governments
for reducing prices and improving availability.
It usually looks at cash flow during the hold period of the investment plus the cash flow resulting
from the ultimate disposition of the investment property.
In these respects it is different from and more sophisticated than Tool Kit #2 Direct
Capitalization, which usually limits its focus to annual net incomes without taking into account
cash flow, appreciation in value, paying down of mortgages, or ultimate cash flow on
For the last 100 years, a health care regulatory project enthusiastically endorsed by generations of health policy
experts has been encrusting U.S. health care with layer upon layer of increasingly intrusive regulation. Though each
regulation may be innocuous in its own right, taken together they have had the unfortunate effect of divorcing patients
from spending on their health, creating explosive growth in Wisconsin’s Medicaid budget, and making Wisconsin’s
market for hospital services one of the least competitive in the United States.
This guidance is not legally-binding. It represents a synthesis of the information and experience
available to the Commission. It is intended as a summary of the current state of the art with
respect to best practice on integrated environmental management. The guidance is not intended to
be a rigid set of rules to be followed in all circumstances. The mere fact that there is so much
diversity between cities across the EU means that no one solution is applicable nor appropriate
for all situations.
Subsidy rates range from 38% to 67% for policies using either “basic” units or “optional” units.
Basic units cover all plantings in a single county of a crop with the same tenant/landlord.
Optional units are basic units divided into smaller units by township section. As newly authorized
under the 2008 farm bill, a higher subsidy rate (up to 80%) is provided for policies using
enterprise units (all land for a single crop in a county, regardless of the tenant/landlord structure).
Because the premium for policies using enterprise units is lower (i.e.
The program attracts between 60 and 110 applications per year. After one class with 45 students was
started in 1998, 1999 and 2000, two classes with together 85 students were started in 2001. On the aver-
age, employers contribute 50% to the tuition fees, the other expenses and the absences. Between 75%
and 90% of the students of this mainly German language program work in Switzerland, the remainder
mostly in Germany.
Figure 4 exhibits the graduation disciplines of the participants in the first six classes.
Through efforts by the Ministry of Commerce, together with the cooperation of the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and several other development
partners under the framework of the Diagnostic Trade Integration Strategy in 2007,
19 commodities and services subsectors with high export potential and strong
contribution to human development were identified. The list was submitted to the
Government of Cambodia for action. The rubber industry ranked among the top five
sectors with high export potential and medium-high contribution to human
Abnormal reproductive development in males has been linked to environmen-
tal contaminant exposure in a wide variety of vertebrates. These include
humans, rodent models, and a large number of comparative wildlife species. In
human males, abnormal reproductive development can manifest as a suite of
symptoms, described collectively as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS
is also described as demasculinization or feminization of the male phenotype.
Hydrogen peroxide and catalyst solutions needed for Fenton's Reagent are
usually added to the treatment area by pressure injection into one or more
designated chemical oxidation injection wells, or gravity injection into one or more
monitoring or other wells.
In pressure injection, compressed air is used to sparge the ferrous iron catalyst
and relatively large volumes of peroxide solution (e.g., hundreds to thousands of
gallons) into the contaminated soil and groundwater over a short period of time
There are other bizarre and unkind ramifications. For example, the transport of POPs
depends on temperature; in a process known as the "grasshopper effect", these chemicals
jump around the globe, evaporating in warm places, riding the wind and particles of dust,
settling to Earth in cool spots, and then vaporizing and moving on again. As the POPs move
away from the equator they encounter cooler climates with less evaporation. The result is a
general drift of these pollutants toward the Poles and mountain areas.