improvement occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The aim of this
disease is to re-review pulmonary embolism in the light of new developments. In this
book, in addition to risk factors causing pulmonary embolus, a guide for systematic
approaches to lead the risk stratification for decision making is also presented.
Most of the early work on abuse of the elderly was
limited to domestic settings and carried out in
developed countries. In seeking explanations for
elder abuse, researchers drew from the literature in
the fields of psychology, sociology, gerontology
and the study of family violence. To accommodate
the complexity of elder abuse and the many factors
associated with it, researchers have turned to the
ecological model, which was first applied to the
study of child abuse and neglect (24) and has been
applied more recently to elder abuse (25, 26).
Gerontology, the study of ageing and the elderly, deals not only with the physical
process of ageing, but also with the related social and cultural factors. There are two
contradictory processes we are concerned with. Elderly people in modern societies are of
lower social status and with less power than in sub-modern societies, but are less prone to
accept ageing as an unavoidable process of decay of the human body. Gerontology, the
study of ageing and the elderly, deals not only with the physical process of ageing, but
also with the related social and cultural factors.
Needles: Standard disposable 22-24 gauge 1-1½-inch needles are used for plain FNAC.
The length and caliber of the needle should fit the size, depth, location and the consistency
of the target. For small subcutaneous lesions, one-inch 23-gauge needle is ideal while for a
deep-seated breast lesion, longer and larger needle is required. Finer needles are also
recommended for children, and for vascular organs like thyroid.
Syringes: Standard disposable plastic syringes of 10ml are used. Syringe should be of good
quality and should produce good negative pressure.
Gerontogeriatric nursing groups knowledge and
nursing practices derived from General Nursing,
Geriatrics and Gerontology(3). Gerontogeriatric nursing
is, in addition, a specific branch of nursing that delivers
care to the elderly at all levels of prevention, i.e., from
health promotion to rehabilitation. This nomenclature was
selected because it is understood as being more
comprehensive and adequate(4).
Strategic actions aiming at elderly health are:
implementing the Caderneta de Saúde for the elderly, with
relevant information about their health, permitting better
follow-ups by healthcare workers; Family Health Strategy;
stimulating the Permanent Distance Education Program,
implementing permanent education activities in the field
of aging and elderly health, focused on workers in the
basic healthcare network; establishing the Welcoming, by
reorganizing the process of welcoming elderly patients in
healthcare units; establishing Pharmaceutical Care,
developing actions that aim at...
In recent years, all western industrialized countries, and to a growing extent
even many developed and developing Asian nations, have witnessed a remarkable
growth in numbers of older people . Future projections anticipate continued
increases, particularly in numbers of individuals who are 85 years and older .
Although US statistics have indicated recent declines in disability trends , overall
numbers of older individuals living with disability and functional dependence
are likely to increase given projected increases in life expectancy .
In November 1999, the Department of Dental Surgery at Chubu National Hospital,
National Institute of Longevity Science (Now: National Center for Geriatrics and
Gerontologyʣ, established the first oral care outpatient clinic in the nation. We have instructed
many people in methods of systematic oral care, and the service has earned a good reputation.
Through years of clinical practice and teaching, I have
observed that orientation to each major clinical nursing
specialty usually leads the novice to ask a somewhat predictable
set of questions ranging from specialty-related
communication, to assessment and anatomy, physiology,
and pathology involved in frequently seen conditions to
questions related to the planning and implementation of
patient care. Many excellent texts are available to provide
in-depth information related to these topics.
The day-to-day responsibility for wound management is usually
undertaken by nurses. It includes assessing the wound, selecting an
appropriate treatment and evaluating the patient’s progress. To do
this effectively the nurse needs to understand the healing process,
recognise factors that may delay wound healing, understand how
wound healing can be optimised, know how to recognise complications
if they arise and know how to treat them.