Gland secretion

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  • Beginning birdwatchers face many frustrations: birds, it seems, are constantly in motion, taking flight before the fledgling birder can turn to a photograph or drawing that might help pinpoint its identification. The experienced birdwatcher, Edward Cronin writes in this friendly manual, is by contrast able to identify a dozen species in a few seconds, which compounds the beginner's lack of self-confidence. Never fear, Cronin reassures us: The "magician's trick of rapidly identifying species is, in truth, based on a logical procedure that anyone can master.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'therapy for mucus-clearance disorders_1', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The thought of mucus disturbs many people. Mucus is beneficial as the first defense of the airways. The mucus lining traps inhaled particles and allows them to be cleared from the airway by cilia and cough. The mucus layer also prevents dehydration and desiccation of the airway surface and provides a nutrient milieu for the ciliated epithelium. Mucus can also be quite bad. Airway mucus retention due to hypersecretion or poor mucus clearance is a characteristic of many airway diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and asthma.

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  • MFG-E8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a peripheral membrane glycoprotein, which is expressed abundantly in lactating mammary glands and is secreted in association with fat globules. This protein consists of two-repeated EGF-like domains, a mucin-like domain and two-repeated discoidinlike domains (C-domains), and contains an integrin-binding motif (RGD sequence) in the EGF-like domain. To clarify the role of each domain on the peripheral association with the cell membrane, several domain-deletion mutants of MFG-E8 were expressed in COS-7 cells. ...

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  • Triatoma infestans(Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect that transmits the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease. Its saliva contains trialysin, a protein that forms pores in membranes. Peptides based on the N-terminus of trialysin lyse cells and fold into a-helical amphipathic segments resembling antimicrobial peptides. Using a specific antiserum against trialysin, we show here that trialysin is synthesized as a precursor that is less active than the protein released after saliva secretion. ...

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  • Two neuropeptides have been isolated and identi®ed from the secretions of the skin glands of the Stony Creek Frog Litoria lesueuri. The ®rst of these, the known neuropeptide caerulein 1.1, is a common constituent of anuran skin secretions, and has the sequence pEQY(SO3 )TGWMDF-NH2 . This neuropeptide is smooth muscle active, an anal-gaesic more potent thanmorphine and is also thought to be a hormone.

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  • Chapter 32 - The endocrine system. The endocrine system includes the organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood. Hormones help to regulate the chemical reactions within cells. They therefore control the functions of the organs, tissues, and other cells that comprise these cells. In this chapter you will learn about the processes and organs of the endocrine system.

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  • All female mammals nurse their young with milk, which is secreted from special glands, the mammary glands. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,702 species were known in 2005. These were grouped in 1,229 genera, 153 families and 29 orders.[1] In 2008 the IUCN completed a five-year, 17,000-scientist Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5488 accepted species at the end of that period.

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  • Milk evolved as a means of providing for the postnatal needs of the developing mammalian neonate. Any perception that milk is a simple, homogeneous fluid does not adequately acknowledge the remarkable array of complex activities and functionalities of its constituent components.

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  • Water Excretion In contrast to the ingestion of water, its excretion is tightly regulated by physiologic factors. The principal determinant of renal water excretion is arginine vasopressin (AVP; formerly antidiuretic hormone), a polypeptide synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

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  • Low molecular mass proteins are implicated in chemical communication throughout mammalian species, being involved in both perception and delivery of pheromonal compounds. In boars, pheromones are secreted in saliva to cause oestrous sows to take up the mating stance. These pheromones are the 16-androstene steroids, 5a-androsten-3a-ol and 5a-androsten-3-one. The submaxillary glands of boars contain a low molecular mass protein, pheromaxein, which is capable of binding these 16-androstene phero-mones. ...

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  • Sympathetic nerve stimulation induces vasoconstriction and consequent decreases nasal airway resistance. Parasympathetic nerve stimulation on the other hand, promotes secretion from nasal airway glands and nasal congestion. The nasal mucosa also contains nerves of the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)- system. Neuropeptides from the latter nerves (substance P, neurokinin A and K, and calcitonin gene-related peptide) are suspected to play a role in vasodilatation, mucus secretion, plasma extravasation, neurogenic inflammation, and mast cell nerve interactions.

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  • Harrison's Hypocalcemia Internal Medicine Chapter 47. Hypercalcemia and HYPERCALCEMIA AND HYPOCALCEMIA: INTRODUCTION The calcium ion plays a critical role in normal cellular function and signaling, regulating diverse physiologic processes such as neuromuscular signaling, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Thus, extracellular calcium concentrations are maintained within an exquisitely narrow range through a series of feedback mechanisms that involve parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D].

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  • Hormonal Evaluation Androgens are secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands in response to their respective tropic hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The principal circulating steroids involved in the etiology of hirsutism are testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEAS). The ovaries and adrenal glands normally contribute about equally to testosterone production.

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  • Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that is synthesized in and secreted from the lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. We are now aware that synthesis and secretion of prolactin is not restricted to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, but other organs and individual cells can also produce it. This book provides the headlines to follow a course of cumulated knowledge on prolactin research during the last two-three decades and it may also help us understand some of the concerns that we face today....

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  • The calcium ion plays a critical role in normal cellular function and signaling, regulating diverse physiologic processes such as neuromuscular signaling, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Thus, extracellular calcium concentrations are maintained within an exquisitely narrow range through a series of feedback mechanisms that involve parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D]. These feedback mechanisms are orchestrated by integrating signals between the parathyroid glands, kidney, intestine, and bone (Fig.

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  • Peptidomics is a powerful set of tools for the identification, structural eluci-dation and discovery of novel regulatory peptides and for monitoring the degradation pathways of structurally and catalytically important proteins. Amphibian skin secretions, arising from specialized granular glands, often contain complex peptidomes containing many components of entirely novel structure and unique site-substituted analogues of known peptide families.

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  • Crustacean growth and development is characterized by periodic shedding (ecdysis) and replacement of the rigid exoskeleton. Secretions of the X-organ sinus gland complex control the cellular events that lead to growth and molting. Western blot and ELISA results showed a progressive increase in growth arrest-specific protein (Gas7) from early postmolt stage to a maximum at late postmolt stage.

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  • Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional molecule present in mammalian secretions and blood, plays important roles in host defense and cancer. Indeed, Lf has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of cancerous mammary gland epi-thelial cells and manifest a potent antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalo-virus. The Lf-binding sites on the cell surface appear to be proteoglycans and other as yet undefined protein(s).

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  • Oxytocin is secreted naturally by the posterior pituitary—the back portion of a small gland at the brain’s base that produces hormones—during later pregnancy, labor, and when the baby breastfeeds. Synthetic forms of oxytocin are found in brand-name products as well as in generic form. In moderate doses, oxytocin produces slow, generalized contractions of the muscles in the uterus with full relaxation in between. When used for postpartum hemorrhage, oxytocin takes effect sooner than most other uterotonic drugs, including misoprostol.

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