Glioma progression

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  • More than one in five deaths among children under five occurs during the first week of life, most due to malnutrition in the mother and fetus leading to low birth weights, and compounded by poor antenatal care and lack of skilled birth attendants. Regional estimates of U5MR in 2003 vary from a low of nine per 1000 live births for developed countries to a high of 172 per 1000 live births in sub- Saharan Africa (see Figure 3). In relation to the goal, the difference between regions in the reduction of U5MR over the period 1990-2003 is striking.

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  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra. This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical conditions.

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  • Increasing physiological and psychological impairments with age does not mean that ageing is equivalent with illness, diseases or dependency. In fact, earlier studies could not explore that a type or the pathogenesis of diseases is only caused by the ageing process (Steinhagen-Thiessen & Borchelt 1996). Brody and Schneider (1986) distinguished between age-dependent and age-related diseases. Age-dependent diseases are involved in the ageing process and cause the exponentially increasing mortality risk with advanced age, for instance heart and cerebrovascular diseases.

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  • This primer gives a brief glimpse of available data on health care costs, and summarizes the impact of spending growth on various parts of society. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the source for several of the analyses shown, present the costs of care by type of health service or product (such as hospital care, physician services, or prescription drugs), sources of funds (such as private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, or out-of-pocket by the individual patient), and types of sponsors (private business, households, and government).

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  • More needs to be done now to get traffi c off the roads and on to rail. Real prices have to be charged that refl ect the real costs caused by polluters. The wider use of market-based instruments will bring about more cost-oriented pricing and fairer market conditions, which would lead to modal shift, behavioural changes, and help pay for improvements in rail infrastructure.

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  • In addition to return and diversification goals, public pension funds target investments to benefit the economic climate where their beneficiaries live and work. Often public employees retire in their state. For example, the New York State and Local Retirement System (New York State Common) has 77 percent of retirees and beneficiaries that remain New York State resi- dents (NYSLRS 006). Pension funds therefore adopt targeted investment policies to seek competitive returns while also allowing a fund to create healthy communities benefiting their retirees and beneficiaries.  ...

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  • There has been only modest improvement in the productivity of indigenous cows, cross- breds or buffaloes over the last two decades in India (Table 1). The average daily milk production data at 6.52 kg for crossbreds, 2.10 kg for indigenous cattle and 4.44 kg for buffaloes (NSSO, 2007) suggests that the productivity of these animals is far below their genetic potential.

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  • Water resources could in principle be managed by several users as common property resources. In the absence of effective mechanisms for co-management at the watershed or river-basin level, however, water resources often become open access. Conflicts often arise between upstream and downstream users. Irrigators at the tail end of a large irrigation system may have the formal right to water, but their share may be taken by farmers near the head of the system, who may even have switched to higher value and more water consumptive crops through collusion with irrigation officials.

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  • The tactile examination of the breast is best performed with the patient re- cumbent with her arm raised above her head. A small pillow under her upper back can further distribute the breast tissue over the chest wall. Palpation is performed using the base of the fingertips in small circular motions with vari- able depth. Recall that breast tissue extends beyond the region usually defined by a bra cup.

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  • The process of counting correct answers began by assigning a value to the responses to each question (Table 6). Where countries have substituted questions, or reworded them, we have also given a value of 1 to a correct response and 0 in all other cases. In the case of a country with fewer than 8 financial knowledge questions we have rescaled each score as necessary (typically multiplying by a factor of 8/7).

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  • This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25 country survey. It also brings together our previously published findings relevant to European Commission Vice President Kroes’ CEO Coalition recent initiative to make the internet a better place for children. New results show that, of nine different kinds of parental worries about their child, online risks – being contacted by strangers (33% parents) or seeing inappropriate content (32% parents) - rank 5th and 6th.

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  • In Southeast Asia there have been found a lot of rubber-bearing plants. Most of them are members of the one family, Apocynaceae, but there are also some important species from other families, like Ficus elastica Roxb. and Bleekrodea tonkinensis Dub. & Eber., which both belongs to the family Moraceae. The first seeds for the cultivation of the rubber were sent to Asia, Sri Lanka, in 1876, but these first attempts to grow the rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) were not successful. It was not until 1877 when 22 rubber trees were plated in Singapore. From...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Reduced expression of SMAD4 in gliomas correlates with progression and survival of patients

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  • And in fact, that neuroprotection is indeed possible is demonstrated beyond doubt by the neglected survivor of that host of neuroprotectant agents: hypothermia. Hypothermia was demonstrated to be effective in a score of animal experiments, and it has now become recommended intervention in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hypothermia is not a drug, but it demonstrates that neuroprotection is a reality, not a myth. Besides, it obviously shows that animal experiments were right, humans treated with hypothermia fare better than untreated ones, just like animal studies had predicted.

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  • The international association congress market brings together members with common professional, scientific or social interests. The associations vary in size and membership, can be regional or international in scope and use meetings as one of the most important communication methods amongst members. The associations also use their meetings as a key revenue generator to support the headquarters and fund outreach activities such as specialised research and public health campaigns as well as programmes in developing countries.

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  • According to the Office of the Surgeon General, seven of ten Americans die each year from a preventable chronic disease such as heart disease, diabetes and many forms of cancer. In addition to the high morbidity of chronic disease, there is an associated high economic cost. For instance, health care spending in the United States reached $2.3 trillion last year, which is 16% of the country’s gross domestic product. As much of this cost is due to treating chronic disease, the Office of the Surgeon General has declared that disease prevention is its number one priority.

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  • The objective of this paper is to estimate the covariance matrix of stock returns. This is a fundamental question in empirical Finance with implications for portfolio selection and for tests of asset pricing models such as the CAPM. The traditional estimator — the sample covariance matrix — is seldom used because it imposes too little structure. When the number of stocks N is of the same order of magnitude as the number of historical returns per stock T, the total number of parameters to estimate is of the same order as the total size of the data set, which is clearly problematic.

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  • The vision of the Network from those early days has not diminished over time, but has become strong and grown. This vision is encapsulated in the ENHPS Resolution of the 1997 ENHPS First European Conference. In the resolution, ten principles of the health promoting school are laid out; they form the framework upon which countries have built their own ideas, concepts and principles.

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  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its treatment can lead to other health problems. You may receive supportive care to prevent or control these problems and to improve your comfort and quality of life during treatment. You may receive antibiotics and other drugs to help protect you from infections. Your health care team may advise you to stay away from crowds and from people with colds and other contagious diseases. If an infection develops, it can be serious, and you will need treatment right away. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its treatment also can lead to anemia, which may make you feel very tired.

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  • Sovereign wealth funds are another sub category of institutional investor that have risen in importance in recent years. As their names suggest they are institutions constituted to manage national wealth, the source of which typically arises from significant trade surpluses.

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