Less than 3 decades ago, Robin Warren and Barry Marshall definitively identified Helicobacter pylori by culturing an organism from gastric biopsy specimens that had been visualized for almost a century by pathologists (196). In 1994, H. pylori was recognized as a type I carcinogen, and now it is considered the most common etiologic agent of infection-related cancers, which represent 5.5% of the global cancer burden (239). In 2005, Marshall and Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize of Medicine for their seminal discovery of this bacterium and its role in peptic ulcer disease
In high-income countries, cancer has received considerable public attention
because it is one of the major causes of mortality, morbidity, and
disease burden. In middle- and particularly in low-income countries,
cancer has received less public attention because other diseases, especially
infectious diseases, have historically been far more pressing. Although less
prominent in relative terms, as this report documents, cancer is a major
burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) today.
Tham khảo sách 'land-based pollution sources: a global synopsis of land-based pollui on sources science and transboundary management', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
I am very grateful to the special group of distinguished scientists who made up the Panel
and Secretariat for this major review of the evidence on food, nutrition, physical activity
and cancer. The vision of WCRF International in convening this Panel and confidence in
letting a strong-willed group of scientists have their way is to be highly commended.
In our view, the evidence reviewed here that led to our recommendations provides a
wonderful opportunity to prevent cancer and improve global health. Individuals and
populations have in their hands the means to lead fuller, healthier lives.
Maintaining a robust nursing workforce is essential to meeting the needs of diverse patient
populations and advancing global health. As the largest segment of the healthcare workforce,
nurses play a critical role in providing life-saving and life-sustaining care across settings. The
worldwide nursing shortage of the last decade underscored the importance of preparing adequate
numbers of professional nurses and the dangers that result when too few nurses are available to
provide care. Recent investigations led by Drs.
For government, the implications are two‐fold. First, there is a need for a reconsideration of
policy settings in view of the current international climate, particularly in regard to
immigration policy as it affects higher education. Second, government needs to examine
options to meet the challenges presented by the current global and domestic circumstances
facing the sector, in view of government’s goals for higher education in general. ...
Cancer of the breast is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Every year 1.6 million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer glo-cancer accounts for 23% of all female cancers glo-bally and shows a geographic variation in incidenc are 39 per 100,000 worldwide – 27 in less and 66 usually applied in single-center institutions per 100,000 in the more developed regions. Out of the 425,000 global annual deaths from breast cancer, however, 68,000 are young women from develop-duce major improvements wit limited financialing countries1.
The Global status report on alcohol and health (2011) presents a comprehensive
perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of
drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States. It represents a
continuing effort by the World Health Organization (WHO) to support Member States in
collecting information in order to assist them in their efforts to reduce the harmful use of
alcohol, and its health and social consequences.
People with MEN1 have a very high risk of developing tumors of 3 glands: the pituitary,
parathyroid, and pancreas. About one-third to one-half of people with this condition also
develop adrenal adenomas or enlarged adrenal glands. These usually do not cause any
symptoms. This syndrome is caused by defects in a gene called MEN1. People who have
a family history of MEN1 or pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, or adrenal cancers should
ask their doctor if they might benefit from genetic counseling.
Healthcare professionals should adequately inform men with prostate
cancer and their partners or carers about the effects of prostate cancer and
the treatment options on their sexual function, physical appearance,
continence and other aspects of masculinity. Healthcare professionals
should support men and their partners or carers in making treatment
decisions, taking into account the effects on quality of life as well as
In addition to incidence figures, population-based cancer registries that
conduct adequate follow-up of their patients are able to estimate the preva-
lence of cancer. Prevalence figures give an indication of the burden of the dis-
ease in the community. Cancer registries generally assume that once diag-
nosed with cancer, an individual remains a prevalent case until death. Thus,
prevalence may be estimated from data on incidence and survival.
These admittedly rather vague suggestions for man-
aging cancer are clearly something of a long shot, but
the 12 new Physical Science-Oncology Centers are
just starting up (figure 4), and over the coming years
they will work together to compare ideas and results
from their experimental and theoretical investiga-
tions. The success of the initiative will depend on how
well the scientists involved can form links between
Although the psychosocial oncology literature is strong, substantial limitations and
unanswered questions remain. Much of the research has focused on heterogeneous
samples of patients who vary widely across disease site (e.g., melanoma vs. breast
cancer), stage of progression (e.g., localized vs. metastatic), and phase of illness (e.g.,
initial diagnosis vs. long-term survival). The challenges patients face vary widely across
these dimensions, and therefore, it is crucial for research designs to take this into
Malaria is a disease of global concern. Historically,
malaria has killed more people than any other infec-tious disease and still accounts for massive levels of
mortality and morbidity in over 100 countries of the
world. In Africa and some other underdeveloped coun-tries mortality remains high because there is limited
access to treatment in villages.
Young doctors are the future of our Society. Therefore,
I am hoping to see a global network created for young
gynecologists who are interested in gynecologic cancer. If
young doctors from various countries start to communicate
effectively and share information with each other, we
can both improve and standardize cancer treatment and
contribute to the well-being of women worldwide. Education
for young doctors is very important because they are still
pure and have a sensitivity to share experiences of all kinds.
Thyroid and parathyroid diseases are among the most frequent conditions we have to
deal with in a clinical setting. Both nodular and autoimmune diseases affecting these
glands have increased remarkably over the past decades. The widespread use of crosssectional
imaging and the introduction of neck ultrasonography have led to a thyroid
nodule epidemics and the diagnostic of neck lesions in half of the population.
Consequently, many patients with microscopic papillary thyroid cancers of uncertain
clinical significance are submitted to surgeries that may, perhaps, be unnecessary....
Optical devices in communication and computation have a significant impact on our daily life, although we may not even be aware of their existence, as in case of inter-continent fiber cables that connect people around the world, making it a global village. Novel nanoscale structures have demonstrated a wide range of unique features; therefore have became a hot research topic. Not only that the novel structural materials are used in biomedical therapy, but also the nature inspires the design of innovative optical structures....
In its principles and programs, GHI reflects the Presidential Policy Directive and the QDDR. By strategically investing
in global health, we will spur progress across sectors, in economic development, job creation, education, agricultural
development, gender equality, and political stability. These are goals with both global reach and local significance:
the health and stability of countries around the world are strongly linked to the security and prosperity of the United
This nation has made enormous contributions to improving health outcomes worldwide. The U.S.
Thanks to a long, successful marketing campaign by De Beers, diamonds became strongly associated with
romantic love, first in the United States and then globally (see.Figure.5). In the 1940s the company launched
a long-running and renowned campaign around the theme “A diamond is forever.” Over many decades,
hundreds of millions of dollars were spent to market the notion that diamonds signify romance and love.
That campaign benefited the entire diamond industry.
The internet has provided the global audience instant information, broad connections to billions and a revolutionary form of
communication. However, for all of this seemingly effortless access to consumers, the internet has traditionally been a complex
problem for marketers. Numerous organizations either do not have or maintain an appropriate interactive / internet marketing plan.
More still simply include an isolated online component, typically a banner advertising campaign, in an overall marketing plan.