Global disturbances

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  • As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impacts on the earth’s resources are hard to ignore. The ability of the earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. Editorship of this book was undertaken with several goals in mind. First, I wanted to present an organized summary of the many types of disturbances that impact the earth, with as global a focus as the existing literature allowed....

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  • The all-too-common conditions this woman and her children face illustrate how health programs and weak systems in many developing countries are not meeting needs. Although health services may be available, too often they are of poor quality and are provided in an uncoordinated or ad hoc manner. Often, they are organized around funding sources or diseases, rather than in a way that addresses the broader needs of the populations they seek to serve.

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  • This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of the solar wind exploration.

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  • Drawing upon the MDG experience, this session offers an opportunity to reflect on how to put the empowerment of women and girls and the protection of their rights at the centre of a future global agenda. Two related questions in this regard are how gender equality could be strengthened by (a) modifying and broadening the indicators for MDG3 and (b) by focusing on gender equality as a theme across the new development agenda. Many seem to propose a two-pronged approach of mainstreaming and a standalone target for gender equality. ...

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  • All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site ( or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site (

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  • In a recent Science paper, Olsen et al. (2006) state that ‘it is clear that the H5N1 problem originated from outbreaks in poultry, and that … their geographical spread probably cannot be stopped without implementation of proper control measures in the global poultry industry’. It is also clear that many cases of wild bird infections seem to have occurred when the wild birds were in close proximity to captive birds (Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department in Melville and Shortridge 2004, Chen et al. 2006).

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  • The state of aquatic ecosystems reflects the general state of the biosphere. The situation in the biosphere affected by anthropogenic factors was characterized as “a slow explosion” (Fedorov 1987). The global change in the biosphere and climatic system of the Earth is a manifestation of this “slow explosion” (World Resources 1990–1991, Izrael et al. 1992).

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  • Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud forests, Arctic and high latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate‐induced disturbances. Enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries.

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  • The “Ericsson GSM System” is Ericsson’s implementation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), encompassing GSM 900, GSM 1800, and also a GSM 1900 standard for the North American market. These systems are built around Ericsson´s AXE switching system technology. AXE’s system modularity standard allows functions to be added, deleted, or modified without disturbing the functionality in the rest of the system. Thus creating an environment where Ericsson’s GSM system can profit fully from future AXE developments....

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  • As shown later, much of the resultant risk to human populations and the ecosystems upon which they depend comes from the pro- jected extremely rapid rate of change in climatic conditions. Indeed, the prospect of such change has stimulated a great deal of new scientific research over the past decade, much of which is elucidating the complex ecological disturbances that can impact on human well-being and health—as in the following example.

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