Global localization

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  • Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing Volume 2008, Article ID 317252, 14 pages doi:10.1155/2008/317252 Research Article Nonparametric Bayesian Filtering for Location Estimation, Position Tracking, and Global Localization of Mobile Terminals in Outdoor Wireless Environments Mohamed Khalaf-Allah Institute of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Leibniz University of Hannover, Appelstrasse 9A, 30167 Hannover, Germany Correspondence should be addressed to Mohamed Khalaf-Allah, mohamed.

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  • The acceleration of globalization and the growth of emerging economies present signifi cant opportunities for business expansion. One of the quickest ways to achieve effective international expansion is by leveraging the web, which allows for the technological connectivity of global markets and opportunities to compete on a global basis. To systematically engage and thrive in this networked global economy, professionals and students need a new skill set – one that can help them develop, manage, assess, and optimize efforts to successfully launch websites for tapping global markets.

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  • The burning of fossil fuels puts into the atmosphere carbon dioxide, which is causing gradual global warming. This 'greenhouse effect' may by early next century have increased average global temperatures enough to shift agricultural production areas, raise sea levels to flood coastal cities, and disrupt national economies.

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  • Health Systems and the "Brain Drain" A significant and oft-invoked barrier to effective health care in resourcepoor settings is the lack of medical personnel. In what is termed the brain drain, many physicians and nurses emigrate from their home countries to pursue opportunities abroad, leaving behind health systems that are understaffed and illequipped to deal with the epidemic diseases that ravage local populations.

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  • Birds, by their very existence, enhance our daily lives. For many of us, it is a thrill to see the splash of a Brown Thrasher in a birdbath, or the flash of red in green woods as a tanager darts past. It is a gift of nature that such birds – which play an important role in healthy ecosystems by controlling pests, dispersing seeds, and pollinating plants – are also so beautiful and such a joy to watch.

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  • The present paper describes a robust approach for abbreviating terms. First, in order to incorporate non-local information into abbreviation generation tasks, we present both implicit and explicit solutions: the latent variable model, or alternatively, the label encoding approach with global information. Although the two approaches compete with one another, we demonstrate that these approaches are also complementary. By combining these two approaches, experiments revealed that the proposed abbreviation generator achieved the best results for both the Chinese and English languages. ...

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  • We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignmentbased features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efficiently finds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or nonoverlapping flat coordinations into account. ...

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  • In this paper, we present a novel global reordering model that can be incorporated into standard phrase-based statistical machine translation. Unlike previous local reordering models that emphasize the reordering of adjacent phrase pairs (Tillmann and Zhang, 2005), our model explicitly models the reordering of long distances by directly estimating the parameters from the phrase alignments of bilingual training sentences.

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  • Techniques for non-invasive Breslow determination use either mechanical or electromagnetic waves. A wave is the propagation of a perturbation inducing reversible variations of local physical properties. It transports energy but no matter. Ultrasounds and optical waves are used mainly because of their innocuousness. In the next paragraphs, ultrasonography then several optical techniques will be developed. Basic physical principles of each type of wave interaction with skin will be described then accuracy of Breslow index determination by such techniques will be given.

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  • raditionally, information provided to warfighters only gave them broad situational awareness. Today, information from sensors and databases can help warfighters target past what they can see. This has prompted the Department of Defense (DoD) to build a military analog to the Internet, to be a font of warfighting information (and system services). But how should responsibility for providing inform......

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  • A special thank you to Hope Steele for her superb editing work and Neil Weinberg for his excellent graphic design and layout. The terms country and nation as used in this report do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained economic areas that may not be states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.

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  • Disambiguating concepts and entities in a context sensitive way is a fundamental problem in natural language processing. The comprehensiveness of Wikipedia has made the online encyclopedia an increasingly popular target for disambiguation. Disambiguation to Wikipedia is similar to a traditional Word Sense Disambiguation task, but distinct in that the Wikipedia link structure provides additional information about which disambiguations are compatible.

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  • In summarization, sentence ordering is conducted to enhance summary readability by accommodating text coherence. We propose a grouping-based ordering framework that integrates local and global coherence concerns. Summary sentences are grouped before ordering is applied on two levels: group-level and sentence-level. Different algorithms for grouping and ordering are discussed. The preliminary results on single-document news datasets demonstrate the advantage of our method over a widely accepted method. ...

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  • In this paper, we present a method for guessing POS tags of unknown words using local and global information. Although many existing methods use only local information (i.e. limited window size or intra-sentential features), global information (extra-sentential features) provides valuable clues for predicting POS tags of unknown words. We propose a probabilistic model for POS guessing of unknown words using global information as well as local information, and estimate its parameters using Gibbs sampling.

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  • This publication sheds light on the issue of decentralisation in Mexico. It shows that decentralisation can make decision-making more efficient and increase local participation in development issues. Decentralisation can provide a better framework to improve local infrastructure and to channel the necessary finance from public and private sources. The modernisation of infrastructure systems in Mexico's cities and regions would improve the quality of life and stimulate economic development, thus fostering entrepreneurship and employment.

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  • Chapter 11 - The strategy of international business. In this chapter, you will learn to explain the concept of strategy. Recognize how firms can profit by expanding globally. Understand how pressures for cost reductions and pressures for local responsiveness influence strategic choice. Identify the different strategies for competing globally and their pros and cons. Explain the pros and cons of using strategic alliances to support global strategies.

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  • The CoE approach permits a number of permutations in terms of the level of disclosure and enforcement. For example, a listed company may be requested to disclose whether it is in compliance with individual recommendations of the code or merely with the code globally. In terms of the enforcement, the ability of exchanges or other regulators to pursue companies which do not provide adequate levels of disclosure also varies. In most cases, CoE codes are subject to some form of regulatory enforcement, but they may also be subject to enforcement largely by shareholders (e.g.

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  • Unsupervised word representations are very useful in NLP tasks both as inputs to learning algorithms and as extra word features in NLP systems. However, most of these models are built with only local context and one representation per word. This is problematic because words are often polysemous and global context can also provide useful information for learning word meanings.

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  • We propose a probabilistic generative model for unsupervised semantic role induction, which integrates local role assignment decisions and a global role ordering decision in a unified model. The role sequence is divided into intervals based on the notion of primary roles, and each interval generates a sequence of secondary roles and syntactic constituents using local features.

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  • Machine translation of a source language sentence involves selecting appropriate target language words and ordering the selected words to form a well-formed target language sentence. Most of the previous work on statistical machine translation relies on (local) associations of target words/phrases with source words/phrases for lexical selection. In contrast, in this paper, we present a novel approach to lexical selection where the target words are associated with the entire source sentence (global) without the need to compute local associations. ...

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