Xem 1-13 trên 13 kết quả Global sanitation
  • Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life. For the past 50 to 150 years people living in Europe, America and a few capital cities elsewhere around the globe have come to take for granted the provision of a virtually limitless supply of clean, safe water and the seemingly effortless removal of all human wastes ‘out of sight and out of mind’.

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  • Just under a third (31%) of overall activity in this sector is in manufacturing, with the highest levels of  manufacturing  in  the Wind  and  Carbon  Capture  &  Storage  sectors ‐  the  latter  a  reflection  of  the  current drive to prove the technology through pilot projects.

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  • The way we design, plan and build our cities and their infrastructure is critical for developing competitive and liveable cities. Cities are already suffering from severe environmental problems, such as pollution, congestion and excessive waste, while the basic needs of hundreds of millions of urban residents are yet to be met. The unprecedented urbanization imposes an even greater challenge for providing adequate housing, energy, water, sanitation and mobility to all. Cities are at a crossroads.

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  • Furthermore, in order to boost innovative drugs and health solutions in Europe the Health Theme makes a major effort into investigator-driven clinical trials in various fields. With a focus on brain-related diseases, diabetes, and cancer (incorporating life style issues and social determinants of health) the 2011 work programme addresses major health-related societal challenges. Finally, with a focus on antimicrobial drug resistance and emerging epidemics, the Health Theme continues to address global health issues of utmost importance.

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  • Leading cause of death in human population: INFECTION. Most important contributions to public health in last 100 yrs: SANITATION. VACCINATION. Earliest contributions: JENNER – smallpox vaccine. PASTEUR – rabies vaccine. Greatest Triumphs: Global eradication of smallpox (1980). Future global eradication of polio.

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  • Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group. Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.

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  • Much of the content is based on the work done by WSP’s global rural sanitation team. Without their hard work and dedication on the ground, this publication would not have been possible. Contributions from Eduardo Perez, task team leader for WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation, Yolande Coombes, senior water and sanitation specialist, and Ian Moise should also be acknowledged.

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  • The WHO has estimated that environmental exposures contribute to 19% of cancer incidence worldwide. 6 Additionally, a WHO Global Health Risks report looked at five environmental exposures, (unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, urban outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke from solid fuels, lead exposure and climate change), and estimated they account for nearly 10% of deaths and disease burden globally and around one quarter of deaths and disease burden in children under the age of five.

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  • Previous World Health Organization studies have examined the aggregate disease burden attributed to key environmental risks globally and regionally, quantifying the amount of death and disease caused by factors such as unsafe drinking-water and sanitation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Building from that experience, this present study examines how specific diseases and injuries are impacted by environmental risks, and which regions and populations are most vulnerable to environmentally-mediated diseases and injuries.

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  • Global Scaling Up Handwashing is a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) project focused on learning how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behavior change to generate widespread and sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women of reproductive age (ages 15-49) and primary school-aged children (ages 5-9). The project is being implemented by local and national governments with technical support from WSP. For more information, please visit www.wsp.org/scalinguphandwashing.

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  • Water contamination and the degradation and destruction of aquatic ecosystems is a problem of truly global dimensions and impedes sustainable development in poor countries because there is no clean water; there are waterborne diseases; and there is pollution and the lack of sanitation. This chapter provides knowledge of water pollution and its prevention.

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  • The complexity of children’s environmental health (CEH) issues is compounded by the combination of legacy environmental issues, such as water quality and sanitation service delivery, with modern challenges such as transboundary contamination by persistent toxic substances, ozone depletion and hence ultraviolet and ionising radiation, global climate change, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals).

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  • Adverse health outcomes of insufficient water are direct in terms of human water requirements for survival, and indirect in terms of lack of access to drinkable water and water suitable for sanitation and hygiene. Poor quality water (as unsafe water), inadequate sanitation, and insufficient hygiene are the major risk factors for diarrheal disease, which is the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease.

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