During the last two decades, evidence of increasing trends of several endocrine-related disorders has been strengthened. These disorders often come with lack of uniform diagnosis and/ or even unclear endocrine disruption. The later is mainly due to abnormal classical changes in the blood- released hormone to its targeted organ, abnormal communication between cells within a tissue or organ (paracrine), within the same cell (intracrine) or signals which act on the same cell (autocrine).
Estrogen is known to influence glucose homeostasis but the role
of estrogen receptors in muscle glucose metabolism is unknown.
Therefore, we investigated the expression of the two estrogen
receptors, ERa and ERb and their influence on regulation of
GLUT4, and its associated structural protein, caveolin-1, in
mouse muscle. ERaand ERbare co-expressed in the nuclei of
most muscle cells and their levels were not affected by absence of
estradiol (in aromatase knockout, ArKO, mice).
Abstract Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene...
Triacylglycerol metabolism inSaccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed quan-titatively using a systems biological approach. Cellular growth, glucose
uptake and ethanol secretion were measured as a function of time and used
as input for a dynamic flux-balance model.
Insulin is the principal regulatory hormone involved in the tight regulation of fuel metabolism. In response to blood glucose levels, it is secreted by the b cells of the pancreas and exerts its eﬀects by binding to cell surface receptors that are present on virtually all cell types and tissues. In humans, perturbations in insulin function and/or secretion lead to diabetes mellitus, a severe disorder primarily characterized by an inability to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it is estimated that 90–95% of diabetic patients exhibit resistance to insulin action....
(BQ) Part 1 book "Master techniques in surgery hernia" presentation of content: Acids, bases and pH, structure of amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, enzymes and regulation of pathways,... and other contents.
Chapter 26 - Endocrinology, this chapter describe how hormones secreted from the endocrine glands help body maintain homeostasis; describe anatomy and physiology of pancreas and how its hormones maintain normal glucose metabolism; discuss pathophysiology as a basis for key signs and symptoms, patient assessment, and patient management for diabetes and diabetic emergencies of hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome;...