- Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages.
- Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells.
- Other polysaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism.
- The architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and by the positions of its glycosidic linkages.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Candidate autoantigens identified by mass spectrometry in early rheumatoid arthritis are chaperones and citrullinated glycolytic enzymes...
The synthesis of ATP in the human parasiteEntamoeba histolyticais car-ried out solely by the glycolytic pathway. Little kinetic and structural infor-mation is available for most of the pathway enzymes.
Control analysis of the glycolytic flux was carried out in two fast-growth
tumor cell types of human and rodent origin (HeLa and AS-30D, respect-ively). Determination of the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the 10 glycolytic
enzymes from hexokinase to lactate dehydrogenase revealed that hexokin-ase (153–306 times) and phosphfructokinase-1 (PFK-1) (22–56 times) had
higher over-expression in rat AS-30D hepatoma cells than in normal
freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.
Loose interaction between the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phos-phate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) was
visualized in living CHO-K1 cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
(FRET), using time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
In several archaea of the Euryarchaeota, the glycolytic flux proceeds
through a modified version of the Embden–Meyerhof pathway, where the
phosphofructokinase and glucokinase enzymes use ADP as the phosphoryl
donor. These enzymes are homologous to each other. In the hyperthermo-philic methanogenic archaeon
Protein glycation by methylglyoxal is a nonenzymatic post-translational
modification whereby arginine and lysine side chains form a chemically
heterogeneous group of advanced glycation end-products. Methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end-products are involved in pathologies such
as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases of the amyloid type.
We previously reported that GTS1 is involved in regulating ultradian oscillations of the glycolytic pathway induced by cyanide in cell suspensions as well as oscillations of energy metabolism in aerobic continuous cultures. Here, we screened a yeast cDNA library for proteins that bind to Gts1p using the yeast two-hybrid system and cloned multiple TDH cDNAs encoding the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).
Depolarization and repolarization phases (D and R phases, respectively) of
mitochondrial potential fluctuations induced by photoactivation of the
fluorescent probe tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) were ana-lyzed separately and investigated using specific inhibitors and substrates.
The frequency of R phases was significantly inhibited by oligomycin and
aurovertin (mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitors), rotenone (mitochond-rial complex I inhibitor) and iodoacetic acid (inhibitor of the glycolytic
enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase)....
A pathway intermediate is said to be ‘channeled’ when an intermediate just
made in a pathway has a higher probability of being a substrate for the
next pathway enzyme compared with a molecule of the same species from
the aqueous cytoplasm. Channeling is an important phenomenon because
it might play a significant role in the regulation of metabolism.
It has been shown previously in various organisms that the
peroxin PEX14 is a component of a docking complex at the
peroxisomalmembrane,where it is involved in the import of
matrix proteins into the organelle after their synthesis in the
cytosol and recognition by a receptor. Here we present a
characterization of theTrypanosoma bruceihomologue of
PEX14. It is shown that the protein is associated with gly-cosomes,the peroxisome-like organelles of trypanosomatids
in which most glycolytic enzymes are compartmentalized....
In this article, we report the results of an analysis of the
glycolytic enzyme enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lase) of Trypanosoma brucei. Enolase activity was detected
in both bloodstream-form and procyclic insect-stage try-panosomes, although a 4.5-fold lower specific activity was
found in the cultured procyclic homogenate. Subcellular
localization analysis showed that the enzyme is only pre-sent in the cytosol.
Abnormalities of the Glycolytic Pathway (Fig. 101-1) Since red cells, in the course of their differentiation, have sacrificed not only their nucleus and their ribosomes but also their mitochondria, they rely exclusively on the anaerobic portion of the glycolytic pathway for producing energy in the form of ATP. Most of the ATP is required by the red cell for cation transport against a concentration gradient across the membrane. If this fails, due to a defect of any of the enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, the result will be hemolytic disease.
Do đó các hiệu ứng mạnh mẽ của insulin trên sự tổng hợp glycogen cơ đạt được do tác động bổ sung đường vận chuyển tăng, tăng phosphoryl hóa glucose, và hoạt động enzym tổng hợp glycogen tăng. Số phận thay thế đường-phosphate-6, trao đổi chất để pyruvate trong con đường glycolytic, cũng tăng insulin.
The in vitro Entamoeba histolytica pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
(EhPFOR) kinetic properties and the effect of oxidative stress on glycolytic
pathway enzymes and fluxes in live trophozoites were evaluated.EhPFOR
showed a strong preference for pyruvate as substrate over other oxoacids.