In order to address the ever-increasing significance of carbohydrates in biology
the presentation of material in this volume has been somewhat modified. A new
introductory chapter (1) highlights some of the reviews published during the year
that give an overview of the glycobiological aspects of carbohydrate chemistry,
and another new chapter (20) brings together reports of the use of enzymic
methods in the field - particularly those employed in the synthesis of glycosides
and especially di- and oligosaccharides. There is consequently some inevitable
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The NMR structure of 2¢,5¢ d(GGGGCCCC) was deter-mined togain insights into the structural differences between
2¢,5¢-and 3¢,5¢-linked DNA duplexes that may be relevant
in elucidating nature’s choice of sugar-phosphate links to
encode genetic information. The oligomer assumes a duplex
with extended nucleotide repeats formed out of mostly
N-type sugar puckers. With the exception of the 5¢-terminal
guanine that assumes thesyn glycosyl conformation, all
other bases prefer theantiglycosyl conformation. Base pairs
in the duplex exhibit slide ()1.
Although the chemical nature of the catalytic mechanism of the serine pro-tease a-chymotrypsin (a-CT) is largely understood, the influence of the
enzyme’s structural dynamics on its catalysis remains uncertain. Here we
investigate whether a-CT’s structural dynamics directly influence the kinet-ics of enzyme catalysis.
The lightning streamed athwart the heavens in quick and vivid flashes. One peal of thunder after another
echoed from cliff to cliff, while a driving storm of rain, wind and hail, made the face of nature black and
dismal. There was something frightfully congenial in this uproar of the contending elements with the storm
raging in Bacon's heart, as he rushed from the scene of the catastrophe we have just witnessed. The darkness
which succeeded the lurid and sulphureous flashes was not more complete and unfathomable than the black
despair of his own soul.
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein of the
innate host defence system. To elucidate the role ofN-linked
glycosylation in protection of LF against proteolysis, we
compared the tryptic susceptibility of human LF (hLF)
variants from human milk, expressed in human 293(S) cells
or in the milk of transgenic mice and cows. The analysis
revealed that recombinant hLF (rhLF) with mutations
Ile130fiThr and Gly404fiCys was about twofold more
susceptible than glycosylated and unglycosylated variants
with the naturally occurring Ile130 and Gly404....
GM-CSF is one of several naturally occurring glycoproteins
that regulate leukocyte production, migration and function.
It has been produced in different cell types, with different
properties that depend on the production process used. The
purpose of this work was to characterize the recombinant
human GM-CSF from an engineered Chinese hamster
ovary cell line grown in suspension and as adherent culture
for the identification of the glycosylation sites and the defi-nition of the glycosidic moiety, including the degree of site
Glycosylatedpolyenemacrolide antibiotics, as nystatins and
amphotericins, are amphiphilic structures known to exert
antifungal activity by disrupting the fungal cell membrane,
leading to leakage of cellular materials, and cell death. This
membrane disruption is strongly influenced by the presence
and the exact nature of the membrane sterols.
Bothrops snake venoms are known to induce local tissue
damage suchas hemorrhage andmyonecrosis. Theopossum
Didelphis marsupialisis resistant to these snake venoms and
has natural venom inhibitors in its plasma. The aim of this
work was to clone and study the chemical, physicochemical
andbiological properties ofDM64, an antimyotoxic protein
from opossum serum. DM64 is an acidic protein showing
15% glycosylation andwith amolecular mass of 63 659 Da
when analysed by MALDI-TOF MS.
Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), which occur naturally in camelids, are
endowed with many characteristics that make them attractive candidates as
building blocks to create new antibody-related therapeutic molecules. In
this study, we isolated from an immunized llama several high-affinity
sdAbs directed against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a heavily
glycosylated tumor-associated molecule expressed in a variety of cancers.