The aim of this book is to illuminate the essential activity of translation from a number of
perspectives: historical and contemporary, theoretical and practical. At the same time, the
contents of the present volume speak in many modes and voices to literary and cultural
history, and to cross-cultural relations through the ages.The book draws on several
hundred texts, translations, and texts about translation, ranging from classical antiquity to the present.
Existing evaluation metrics for machine translation lack crucial robustness: their correlations with human quality judgments vary considerably across languages and genres. We believe that the main reason is their inability to properly capture meaning: A good translation candidate means the same thing as the reference translation, regardless of formulation. We propose a metric that evaluates MT output based on a rich set of features motivated by textual entailment, such as lexical-semantic (in-)compatibility and argument structure overlap.
A good decoding algorithm is critical to the success of any statistical machine translation system. The decoder’s job is to ﬁnd the translation that is most likely according to set of previously learned parameters (and a formula for combining them). Since the space of possible translations is extremely large, typical decoding algorithms are only able to examine a portion of it, thus risking to miss good solutions.
The paper describes work on applying a general purpose natural language processing system to transfer-based interactive translation. Transfer takes place at the level of Quasi Logical Form (QLF), a contextually sensitive logical form representation which is deep enough for dealing with cross-linguistic differences. Theoretical arguments and experimental results are presented to support the claim that this framework has good properties in terms of modularity, compositionality, reversibility and monotonicity. ...
The solid state and the structure of Solids
We all live on terra firma, the 29 percent of our planet’s solid crust that lies above sea level. And almost everything we do is tied to solids, living in houses, creating and marketing solid goods, eating solid foods, and so on. But if you are asked to define a solid, it might be difficult. A solid is one of those familiar things that are hard to put into words. A good definition of a solid is that it tends to keep its shape when it is left alone. But that doesn’t...
This thesis was done with a view to find out students‟ difficulties in learning written translation in order to orient students who begin to study this subject in good manner of study. the study also aims at understanding the students‟ expectation in learning the subject and then suggesting some possible solutions to overcome difficulties as well as satisfy their expectations to improve and adjust both learning‟s style and teaching method.
This thesis was done with a view to find out students‟ difficulties in learning written translation in order to orient students who begin to study this subject in good manner of study. The study also aims at understanding the students‟ expectation in learning the subject and then suggesting some possible solutions to overcome difficulties as well as satisfy their expectations to improve and adjust both learning‟s style and teaching method.
But up to now not only few but also rather inadequate empirical segmentation studies of
these markets have been carri ed out and published. So, this book will present the results
of a newer and better designed segmentation study of Chinese consumer goods markets.
This study identifies and characterizes 12 market segments that are internally
homogeneous and externally heterogeneous with regard to the product related needs and
wants of their members. Moreover, it explains the possibilities of a segment specific
tailoring of some other elements of the marketing mix.
Statistical models in machine translation exhibit spurious ambiguity. That is, the probability of an output string is split among many distinct derivations (e.g., trees or segmentations). In principle, the goodness of a string is measured by the total probability of its many derivations. However, ﬁnding the best string (e.g., during decoding) is then computationally intractable. Therefore, most systems use a simple Viterbi approximation that measures the goodness of a string using only its most probable derivation.
The adoption of Machine Translation technology for commercial applications is hampered by the lack of trust associated with machine-translated output. In this paper, we describe TrustRank, an MT system enhanced with a capability to rank the quality of translation outputs from good to bad. This enables the user to set a quality threshold, granting the user control over the quality of the translations. We quantify the gains we obtain in translation quality, and show that our solution works on a wide variety of domains and language pairs. ...
In this work, the problem of extracting phrase translation is formulated as an information retrieval process implemented with a log-linear model aiming for a balanced precision and recall. We present a generic phrase training algorithm which is parameterized with feature functions and can be optimized jointly with the translation engine to directly maximize the end-to-end system performance. Multiple data-driven feature functions are proposed to capture the quality and conﬁdence of phrases and phrase pairs.
Named entity translation is indispensable in cross language information retrieval nowadays. We propose an approach of combining lexical information, web statistics, and inverse search based on Google to backward translate a Chinese named entity (NE) into English. Our system achieves a high Top-1 accuracy of 87.6%, which is a relatively good performance reported in this area until present.
"The New Oxford Picture Dictionary" and its components provide a complete, four-skills language development program. The program is: practical - a wide range of topics introduce new words in their most common context; easy to use - vocabulary items are presented without ambiguity or the need for translation versatile - the Dictionary itself and its components have unlimited applications; and flexible - the Dictionary can be used alone or with its components.
The original book, income and wealth, published by Iwanami Shoten Japanese in 1991. Widely welcomed as a new classical distribution theory, it won the prestigious award Shimbun Nikkei Economic Book the same year. Tsuneo Ishikawa started working on an English translation of his book soon after publication, but he became ill and at the time of his death in 1998, leaving half of it is incomplete. He died soon make friends, colleagues, and students together to Tsuneo Ishikawa Fund to commemorate the life and his work, and the end of 2000, 500 people have contributed to the Fund. One of...
Science is a way of making and using observations. The ap-
plications of science have played a central role in the ad-
vancement of civilization.The Latin origin of the word science
(scire) can be translated as “to know.” While some people
might think of scientiﬁc conclusions as unchanging facts, our
understanding is never complete. As the understanding of
nature grows, old ideas that no longer seem to ﬁt our obser-
vations are discarded. The so-called facts of science are often
temporary while the methods of science (observation and
analysis) are permanent....
Yet without good metrics and tangible evidence of impact, the majority of the executives in the survey said
their organizations cannot take social media efforts seriously. And that poses a challenge for companies,
says Avinash Kaushik, Google’s Analytics Evangelist and author of Web Analytics 2.0, because social
media can build up a great deal of data, but not necessarily generate great insights that translate into
action and then more customers and sales.
Directive 2002/45/EC applies more specifically to leather production, and prohibits the
marketing of substances and preparations for the fat liquoring of leather containing C10-C13
chloro-alkanes in concentrations above 1%.
For all pieces of furniture, reference should be made to Directive 1999/44/EC on certain
aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. This Directive regulates
fitness for purpose of consumer goods and the liability of the seller. Directive 1999/44/EC
provides basic protection to consumers against inferior products.
Nucleotide variations that do not alter the protein-coding sequence have
been routinely considered as neutral. In light of the developments we have
seen over the last decade or so in the RNA processing and translational
field, it would be proper when assessing these variants to ask if this change
is neutral, good or bad.
Efﬁcient decoding has been a fundamental problem in machine translation, especially with an integrated language model which is essential for achieving good translation quality. We develop faster approaches for this problem based on k-best parsing algorithms and demonstrate their effectiveness on both phrase-based and syntax-based MT systems. In both cases, our methods achieve signiﬁcant speed improvements, often by more than a factor of ten, over the conventional beam-search method at the same levels of search error and translation accuracy. ...
Translation may seem like an obvious first step, but should be undertaken cautiously.
Be sure you have the program services or referrals to back up the implicit promise of
print materials in another language. Furthermore, a good translation is hard to achieve.
Hire a professional translator, someone who is fluent enough in English and the target
language to be able to render the sense of your message, rather than translating word
for word. If at all possible, avoid translation altogether, by developing materials from
scratch with members of the community....