Government intervention

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  • In order to answer how much government should tax, we must know the costs and benefits of taxation. The benefits result from the roles of government. The costs of taxation include: The direct cost of the revenue paid to government The loss of consumer and producer surplus caused by the tax The administrative costs of collecting the tax.

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  • Chapter 5 - The United States in the global economy. In this chapter, you will learn to: U.S. international trade; comparative advantage, specialization, international trade; exchange rates; government intervention with free international trade; trade-related topics.

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  • Chapter 7, Taxation and government intervention. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Show how equilibrium maximizes producer and consumer surplus, demonstrate the burden of taxation to consumers and producers, explain how government intervention is a type of implicit taxation, define rent seeking and show how it is related to elasticity.

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  • Chapter 6 - Government intervention, in this chapter you will learn: The effect of a price ceiling or a price floor on the equilibrium price and quantity, the effect of a tax or a subsidy on the equilibrium price and quantity, how elasticity and time period influence the impact of a market intervention.

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  • This book began many years ago as an inquiry into the legal issues sur- rounding humanitarian intervention—which I define as the use of military force to protect the victims of human rights violations. As I delved into the matter, however, I found that the legal problems of humanitarian interven- tion were inextricably intertwined with important ethical issues, including whether or not all countries and their citizens have a duty to come to the rescue of those whose lives are imperiled by the malicious behavior of their own governments or by armed factions.

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  • In 1996, Kealey argued that public research activities are irrelevant on business R&D expenditure in his book which with a tile of “The Economic Laws of Scientific Research”. Free commerce will virtually and automatically generate technological innovation and economic growth even without government intervention. The author argued that if the knowledge is useful, then business enterprises will undertake it anyway.

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  • Chapter 6 describe the exchange rate system used by various governments, describe the development and implications of a single European currency, explain how governments can use direct intervention to influence exchange rates, explain how government intervention in the foreign exchange market can affect economic conditions.

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  • Moving from these altruist-focused interventions to the two final 'rungs' on the Ladder, which we class as non-altruist-focused interventions, are, on the other hand, ethically significant steps: scrutiny will be required to determine whether, in the circumstances, they may be ethically justified. Some will regard any intervention that encourages donation of bodily material primarily for non-altruistic purposes as simply 'mis-valuing' body parts, and would not consider such interventions to be acceptable in any circumstances. Others strongly disagree.

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  • (George Caleb Bingham, Stump Speaking, 1853–54) All rights reserved. ... will soon Free-market economics, of which the Austrian School is the preeminent exponent, asserts that every govern- ment intervention in the market generates conse- quences that are deleterious for prosperity and human liberty. However much such interventions may assist one group in the short run, everyone is made worse off in the long run. Government intervention destabilizes economic life in artifi- cial ways, and ultimately does not work to bring about the results that its proponents claim to desire....

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  • The term "liberalism," from the Latin "liber" meaning "free," referred originally to the philosophy of freedom. It still retained this meaning in Europe when this book was written (1927) so that readers who opened its covers expected an analysis of the freedom philosophy of classical liberalism. Unfortunately, however, in recent decades, "liberalism" has come to mean something very different. The word has been taken over, especially in the United States, by philosophical socialists and used by them to refer to their government intervention and "welfare state" programs.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'economics for business: competition, macro-stability and globalisation', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, quản trị kinh doanh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • A condition in which there is only one seller of a certain commodity. Wary of Microsoft’s seeming monopoly of the computer operating–system business, rivals asked for government intervention. monopolistic (adjective). Renowned consumer advocate Ralph Nader once quipped, “The only difference between John D. Rockefeller and Bill Gates is that Gates recognizes no boundaries to his monopolistic drive.” monotonous (adjective) Tediously uniform, unchanging.

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  • While prominence in health policy greatly affects the size of the PHI market – in terms of population coverage, contribution to health financing or scope of government interventions – there is no necessary link between the three factors. There are sizeable PHI markets in a range of health systems with diverse mixes of public and private financing. The size of PHI markets may also result from consumer demand for better choice and more comprehensive cover, even where there is little stimulation through policy levers.

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  • The prominence of private health insurance has been buttressed by government interventions directed at PHI markets in several OECD health systems, although the effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing market size and fostering outcome quality has differed widely. Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and the United States have promoted and maintained a large and viable private health insurance market because policy makers have concluded that mixed public-private coverage systems can better deliver desired health policy and social outcomes.

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  • It is unclear whether MMMFs, as currently structured, are really pass-through entities. Fund investors see no fluctuations in their share values based on changing interest rates or credit spreads. When fund losses materialize, it is usually the sponsors rather than investors who absorb them. And in the only recent example of investors being required to absorb a loss, a run was triggered on other funds that may have significantly impacted the broader economy absent government intervention. ...

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  • A primary justification for government intervention has been the failure of private agricultural insurance markets (see, for example, Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999; Hazell, Pomerada, and Valdez, 1986; Goodwin and Smith, 1995). In a 1922 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bulletin, Valgren describes the disastrous experiences of fire insurance companies that offered crop insurance in the Dakotas and Montana in 1917 and the early 1920s. Severe droughts caused widespread crop losses in those states.

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  • One of the key characteristics of agriculture is the inherent production risks facing producers from adverse weather, pests, and diseases. These risks have been used to justify government intervention in the form of disaster assistance payments, emergency loans, livestock feed assistance programs, crop insurance, and other subsidized assistance schemes. Yet, while government intervention to provide assistance has been widely supported in the United States, the form of assistance has been much debated.

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  • This potential disparity in availability of private insurance between regions and crops is sometimes cited as a reason for government intervention (U.S. GAO, 1980; Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999), but here again, crop insurance is not unique. Many risk management tools used by farmers are available only in certain regions. For example, cash forward contracting is widely available for corn and soybean producers in the Midwest, although the same is not necessarily true for producers in regions where basis risk is high.

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  • As with all medical practice in the United States, safety in reproductive medicine is assured by a combination of state and federal government regulation and professional self-regulation that includes facility accreditation and practitioner certification. On the state level, there is a strict physician licensure system. On the federal level, several agencies enforce standards and practices designed to protect public health and safety. Several national groups accredit laboratories as well.

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  • Despite the gatekeeper role that these scoring systems play regarding access to credit, housing, insurance, utilities, and employment, as well as pricing for those essentials, exactly how the formulas perform the transformation from credit report to credit score is a closely guarded secret. For consumers, regulators, and even industry participants who rely on the computations in their decision-making, the scoring models largely remain a “black box.

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