In order to answer how much government should tax, we must know the costs and benefits of taxation.
The benefits result from the roles of government.
The costs of taxation include:
The direct cost of the revenue paid to government
The loss of consumer and producer surplus caused by the tax
The administrative costs of collecting the tax.
Chapter 5 - The United States in the global economy. In this chapter, you will learn to: U.S. international trade; comparative advantage, specialization, international trade; exchange rates; government intervention with free international trade; trade-related topics.
Chapter 6 - Government intervention, in this chapter you will learn: The effect of a price ceiling or a price floor on the equilibrium price and quantity, the effect of a tax or a subsidy on the equilibrium price and quantity, how elasticity and time period influence the impact of a market intervention.
Chapter 9 "Government intervention", after reading this chapter, you should be able to: Define what “market failure” means, explain why the market underproduces “public goods.”, tell how externalities distort market outcomes, describe how market power prevents optimal outcomes, define what “government failure” is.
This chapter introduces consumer and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between what buyers would have been willing to pay and what they actually had to pay. Producer surplus is the difference between what sellers would have been willing to accept and what they actually received as payment. This chapter also looks at the costs and benefits of taxation. We find that the person who physically pays a tax is not necessarily the person who bears the burden of the tax.
Chapter 13 - Government regulation and intervention (Part 1). This chapter presents the following content: Introduction, criteria for perfect competition, types of government intervention, public goods, externalities, smokers also impose health care costs on nonsmokers,...
Chapter 7, Taxation and government intervention. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Show how equilibrium maximizes producer and consumer surplus, demonstrate the burden of taxation to consumers and producers, explain how government intervention is a type of implicit taxation, define rent seeking and show how it is related to elasticity.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Microeconomics" has contents: Economics and economic reasoning; the production possibility model, trade, and globalization; economic institutions; supply and demand; using supply and demand; taxation and government intervention; market failure versus government failure; international trade policy;...and other contents.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Reading and understanding economics" has contents: Introducing economics - scarcity and choice, the economics of demand and supply, costs- in the short and the long run, competition policy in action, market failure and government intervention,...and other contents.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Managerial economics - Theory and practice" has contents: Market structure - Perfect competition and monopoly; market structure - monopolistic competition; market structure - duopoly and oligopoly, pricing practices, capital budgeting, introduction to game theory; market failure and government intervention,...and other contents.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Microeconomics" has contents: Economics and life, specialization and exchange, markets, elasticity, efficiency, government intervention, game theory and strategic thinking, time and uncertainty, behavioral economics - a closer look at decision making,...and other contents.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Essentials of economics" has contents: Government intervention, the business cycle, aggregate supply and demand, fiscal policy, money and banks, monetary policy, economic growth, theory and reality, international trade.
This book began many years ago as an inquiry into the legal issues sur-
rounding humanitarian intervention—which I define as the use of military
force to protect the victims of human rights violations. As I delved into the
matter, however, I found that the legal problems of humanitarian interven-
tion were inextricably intertwined with important ethical issues, including
whether or not all countries and their citizens have a duty to come to the
rescue of those whose lives are imperiled by the malicious behavior of their
own governments or by armed factions.
In 1996, Kealey argued that public research activities are irrelevant on
business R&D expenditure in his book which with a tile of “The Economic
Laws of Scientific Research”. Free commerce will virtually and
automatically generate technological innovation and economic growth even
without government intervention. The author argued that if the knowledge is
useful, then business enterprises will undertake it anyway.
Chapter 6 describe the exchange rate system used by various governments, describe the development and implications of a single European currency, explain how governments can use direct intervention to influence exchange rates, explain how government intervention in the foreign exchange market can affect economic conditions.
Chapter 6 - Government and the economy. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the changes in the economic role of the government over time, including the new deal and deregulation; explain the benefits of government action; describe the limits and downsides of government action; list and illustrate circumstances in which government intervention in the economy may be useful.
Moving from these altruist-focused interventions to the two final 'rungs' on the Ladder, which we
class as non-altruist-focused interventions, are, on the other hand, ethically significant steps:
scrutiny will be required to determine whether, in the circumstances, they may be ethically
justified. Some will regard any intervention that encourages donation of bodily material primarily
for non-altruistic purposes as simply 'mis-valuing' body parts, and would not consider such
interventions to be acceptable in any circumstances. Others strongly disagree.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Describe how information failures may justify government intervention in some markets; explain the difficulties of conveying economic preferences through majority voting; discuss "government failure" and explain why it happens.
(George Caleb Bingham, Stump Speaking, 1853–54) All rights reserved. ... will soon Free-market economics, of which the Austrian School is
the preeminent exponent, asserts that every govern-
ment intervention in the market generates conse-
quences that are deleterious for prosperity and human liberty.
However much such interventions may assist one group in
the short run, everyone is made worse off in the long run.
Government intervention destabilizes economic life in artifi-
cial ways, and ultimately does not work to bring about the
results that its proponents claim to desire....
The term "liberalism," from the Latin "liber" meaning "free," referred originally
to the philosophy of freedom. It still retained this meaning in Europe when this
book was written (1927) so that readers who opened its covers expected an analysis
of the freedom philosophy of classical liberalism. Unfortunately, however, in recent
decades, "liberalism" has come to mean something very different. The word has
been taken over, especially in the United States, by philosophical socialists and used
by them to refer to their government intervention and "welfare state" programs.