This study examines the role of master’s education in the natural
sciences and whether and how master’s degree programs might be
enhanced to bolster our nation’s workforce and our science-based industries.
To carry out the study, the National Academies appointed a committee
of experts that was charged with exploring and answering, as possible
given the data available, the following questions:
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master’s degree in business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. As industrialization expanded, the demand to manage businesses grew. The MBA degree is probably the world’s best known and most widely recognized post graduate degree in business management. It is a professional master degree.
ESSAYS ON EDUCATION INVESTMENT, INCOME INEQUALITY, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Recall, moreover, that this thought experiment assumes a choice coefficient at the
upper limit of the confidence interval. At the point estimate, choice reduces the gradient of
SAT scores with respect to student quality. The models in Table 1.4 reject a sizableby any
reasonable standardeffect of choice on the test score gradient.
Essays in the Economics of Education A thesis presented The motivation for the empirical approach is a model of the Tiebout marketplace in
which housing prices ration access to desirable schools. As is common in multicommunity
models, equilibrium is characterized by maximum stratification of families across school
districts, with the wealthiest families residing in the most-preferred communities.
ESSAYS ON ENROLLMENT POLICIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION None of the estimates presented in this section supports the hypothesis that effective
schools are more likely to attract the best peer groups in markets with fragmented school
governance than in those where Tiebout choice is more difficult to exercise.
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the relative use of general state
subsidies (tax finance) and tuition (user charge finance) in the state financing of higher
education. State universities across U.S. states are very different among themselves
In this study, we consider only the State Regime in which the state government
decides the user charge, head tax, and expenditure, taking the minimum ability of
students as given and the state university simply is treated as a part of government.
MARKETING HIGHER EDUCATION: APPLYING A CONSUMPTION VALUE MODEL TO COLLEGE CHOICE Chapter One develops this idea and implements tests of the hypothesis that school
effectiveness is an important determinant of residential choices among local-monopoly
school districts. I model a Tiebout-style housing market in which house prices ration
access to desirable schools, which may be desirable either because they are particularly
effective or because they enroll a desirable set of students.
The Market for Higher Education: Economic Analyses of College Choice , Returns , and State Aid Policy A thesis Present I find suggestive evidence, however, that her estimates, from a sample of
public school students, are upward biased by selection into private schools. Moreover, an
investigation of the sampling variability of Hoxbys estimates leads to the conclusion that her
standard errors are understated, and that even her own point estimates of the competitive
effect are not significantly different from zero....
THE RATE OF RETURN TO EDUCATION AND THE GENDER EARNINGS DIFFERENTIAL : A COMPARISON OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPULIC OF IRELAND I am very much indebted to David Card, for limitless advice and support throughout
my graduate school career. The research here has benefited in innumerable ways from his
many suggestions, as have I. It is hard to imagine a better advisor.
WAGE RETURNS FOR POST -SECONDARY EDUCATION: A COMPARISON FOR SELECTED PROGRAMS BY LEVELS OF EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY TYPE The potential effects of school choice programs depend critically on what
characteristics parents value in schools. Hanushek, for example, notes that parents might
not choose effective schools over others that are less effective but offer pleasant
surroundings, athletic facilities, [and] cultural advantages, (1981, p. 34). To the extent that
parents choose productive schools, market discipline can induce greater productivity from
school administrators and teachers.
The Social Return to Education Since model (1) excludes school resources, the term x jγ potentially captures both
conventional peer group effects and other indirect effects associated with the family
background characteristics of students at school j . For example, wealthy parents may be
more likely to volunteer in their childrens schools, or to vote for increased tax rates to
FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT STUDENTS IN THAI PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS This idea forms the basis of my empirical strategy. In essence, I compare the sorting
parameter θ * in equation (3) across metropolitan housing markets with greater and lesser
degrees of residential school choice. Let θ =θ(c,δ)= E[θ *|c,δ] be the average
effectiveness sorting of markets characterized by the parameters c and δ , where c is the
degree of jurisdictional competition (i.e.
CHIlD LABOR IN VIETNAM: THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF POVERTY. RETURNS TO EDUCATION. LABOR MOB ILTTY. AND CREDIT CONSTRAINTS A Model of Tiebout Sorting on Exogenous Community Attributes
In this section, I build a formal model of the Tiebout sorting process described
above. As my interest is in the demand side of the market under full information, I treat the
distribution of school effectiveness as exogenous and known to all market participants.
Essays in Macroeconomics and the Economics of Higher Education In single-MSA regressions of test scores on student characteristics, the above
arguments imply greater attenuation of the peer group coefficient in MSAs with less
stratified schools. As choice is positively correlated with stratification, this produces a
tendency toward larger estimated coefficients (i.e. less bias toward zero) in high-choice
EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH; A CAUSAL ANALYSIS It similarly seems unlikely that parents have zero concern for peer group. In the
presence of direct or indirect peer effects on student learning, parents would be irrational to
ignore peer group in their evaluations of schools, and anecdotal evidence suggests that they
do not do so.
Essays on Economics of Education While it is possible that
parents use the demographic data in this way, it seems more likely that home buyers prefer
wealthier neighborhoods, even conditional on average student performance (Downes and
Three essays consider implications of the strong association between student
background characteristics and academic performance.
Chapter One considers the incentives that school choice policies might create for the
efficient management of schools. These incentives would be diluted if parents prefer
schools with desirable peer groups to those with inferior peers but better policies and
instruction. I model a Tiebout choice housing market in which schools differ in both peer
group and effectiveness.
TREE ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES This could be because effectiveness is swamped by the peer group in
parental preferences or because it is difficult to observe directly. In either case,
administrators who pursue unproductive policies are unlikely to be disciplined by parental
exit and Tiebout choice can create only weak incentives for productive school management.
AN INQUIRY ll’TO THE EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY VARIABLES ON THE ECONOMIC RETURN TO EDUCATION The potential efficiency-enhancing effects of increased Tiebout choice operate
through the assumption that parents prefer schools with j
μ -promoting policies. To the
extent that this is true, Tiebout choice induces a positive correlation between j μ and j x ,
since high- i x families will outbid lower- i x families for homes near the most preferred
CHOICE IN HIGHER EDUCATION: COLLEGE MAJORS. FINANCIAL AID. AND TRANSITION TO THE LABOR MARKET The argument above, supported by the
theoretical model developed in the next section, predicts that ∂ 0
θ for moderate values
of δ but that ∂ = 0
θ when δ is zero or large (i.e. when parents care only about
effectiveness or only about peer group).