For languages with (semi-) free word order (such as German), labelling grammatical functions on top of phrase-structural constituent analyses is crucial for making them interpretable. Unfortunately, most statistical classiﬁers consider only local information for function labelling and fail to capture important restrictions on the distribution of core argument functions such as subject, object etc., namely that there is at most one subject (etc.) per clause.
This textbook, like all textbooks, was born of necessity. When I went looking
for a suitable textbook for my course on Lexical-Functional Grammar at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, I discovered that there wasn’t one. So I
decided to write one, based on my lecture notes. The writing accelerated
when, while I was on sabbatical at Stanford University (August 1999–
February 2000), Dikran Karagueuzian of CSLI Publications expressed
interest in publishing it.
Data-driven grammatical function tag assignment has been studied for English using the Penn-II Treebank data. In this paper we address the question of whether such methods can be applied successfully to other languages and treebank resources. In addition to tag assignment accuracy and f-scores we also present results of a task-based evaluation. We use three machine-learning methods to assign Cast3LB function tags to sentences parsed with Bikel’s parser trained on the Cast3LB treebank.
This paper describes our system for generating Chinese aspect expressions. In the system, the semantics of different aspects is characterized by specific temporal and conceptual features. The semantic applicability conditions of each individual aspect are theoretically represented by an aspect selection function (ASF). The generation is realized by evaluating implemented inquiries which formally define the ASFs, traversing the grammatical network, and making aspect selections.
A grammatical description often applies to a linguistic object only when that object has certain features. Such conditional descriptions can be indirectly modeled in Kay's Functional Unification Grammar (FUG) using functional descriptions that are embedded within disjunctive alternatives. An extension to FUG is proposed that allows for a direct representation of conditional descriptions. This extension has been used to model the input conditions on the systems of systemic grammar. Conditional descriptions are formally defined in terms of logical implication and negation.
We present a web service for natural language parsing, prediction, generation, and translation using grammars in Portable Grammar Format (PGF), the target format of the Grammatical Framework (GF) grammar compiler. The web service implementation is open source, works with any PGF grammar, and with any web server that supports FastCGI. The service exposes a simple interface which makes it possible to use it for interactive natural language web applications. We describe the functionality and interface of the web service, and demonstrate several applications built on top of it. ...
A program for sentence-structure determination is part of a system for linguistic computations such as machine translation or automatic documentation. The program can be divided into routines for analysis of word order and for testing the grammatical connectability of pairs of sentence members.
This paper presents a Function Word centered, Syntax-based (FWS) solution to address phrase ordering in the context of statistical machine translation (SMT). Motivated by the observation that function words often encode grammatical relationship among phrases within a sentence, we propose a probabilistic synchronous grammar to model the ordering of function words and their left and right arguments. We improve phrase ordering performance by lexicalizing the resulting rules in a small number of cases corresponding to function words. ...
A number of grammatical formalisms were introduced to define the syntax of natural languages. Among them are parallel multiple context-free grammars (pmcfg's) and lexical-functional grammars (lfg's). Pmcfg's and their subclass called multiple context-free grammars (mcfg's) are natural extensions of cfg's, and pmcfg's are known to be recognizable in polynomial time. Some subclasses of lfg's have been proposed, but they were shown to generate an AlP-complete language. Finite state translation systems (fts') were introduced as a computational model of transformational grammars. ...
Motivation for including relational constraints other than equality within grammatical formalisms has come from discontinuous constituency and partially free word order for natural languages as well as from the need to define combinatory operations at the most basic level for languages with a two-dimensional syntax (e.g., mathematical notation, chemical equations, and various diagramming languages). This paper presents F-PATR, a generalization of the PATR-II unification-based formalism, which incorporates relational constraints expressed as user-defined functions. ...
The EPISTLE system is being developed in a research project for exploring the feasibility of a variety of intelligent applications for the processing of business and office text (!'Z; the authors of are the project workers). Although ultimately intended functions include text generation (e.g., 4), present efforts focus on text analysis: developing the capability to take in essentially unconstrained business text and to output grammar and style critiques, on a sentence by sentence basis.
How can grammar be viewed as a functional part of a cognitive system) Given a neural basis for the processing control paradigm of language performance, what roles does 'Sgrammar" play? Is there evidence to suggest that grammatical processing can be independent from other aspects of language processing? This paper w i l l focus on these issues and suggest answers within the context of one computational solution. The example model of sentence comprehension.
We describe a case study in which a memory-based learning algorithm is trained to simultaneously chunk sentences and assign grammatical function tags to these chunks. We compare the algorithm’s performance on this parsing task with varying training set sizes (yielding learning curves) and different input representations. In particular we compare input consisting of words only, a variant that includes word form information for lowfrequency words, gold-standard POS only, and combinations of these. ...
This report describes the development of a parsing system for written Swedish and is focused on a grammar, the main component of the system, semiautomatically extracted from corpora. A cascaded, finite-state algorithm is applied to the grammar in which the input contains coarse-grained semantic class information, and the output produced reflects not only the syntactic structure of the input, but grammatical functions as well. The grammar has been tested on a variety of random samples of different text genres, achieving precision and recall of 94.62% and 91.
A constraint is proposed in the Centering approach to pronoun resolution in discourse. This "property-sharing" constraint requires that two pronominal expressions that retain the same Cb across adjacent utterances share a certain common grammatical property. This property is expressed along the dimension of the grammatical function SUBJECT for both Japanese and English discourses, where different pronominal forms are primarily used to realize the Cb. It is the zero pronominal in Japanese, and the (unstressed) overt pronoun in English.
This paper introduces a special programming environment for the definition of grammars and for the implementation of corresponding parsers. In natural language processing systems it is advantageous to have linguistic knowledge and processing mechanisms separated. Our environment accepts grammars consisting of binary dependency relations and grammatical functions. Well-formed expressions of functions and relations provide constituent surroundings for syntactic categories in the form of two-way automata. ...
A recognition grammar to supply information to a text-to-speech system for the synthesis of Italian must rely heavily upon lexical information, in order to instantiate the appropriate grammatical relations. Italian is an almost free word order language which nonetheless adopts f a i r l y analysable strategies to move major constituents: some of these can strongly affect the functioning of the phonotogical component. Two basic claims w i l l be made: i. d i f f i c u l t i e s in associating grammatical functions to constituent structure can be overcome only i f...
An invaluable reference for students and scholars alike. Part 1 explains and illustrates the uses of hundreds of particles, key vocabulary, and other function words. Each entry includes many sample sentences in Japanese, romaji, and English. Free of dense grammatical jargon, Part 2 provides concise overviews of all Japanese parts of speech, polite language (keigo), counters, and other facets of everyday language.
A Student Grammar of Spanish is a concise introduction to Spanish grammar, designed for English-speaking undergraduates. Assuming no prior knowledge of grammatical terminology, it explains each aspect of Spanish grammar in clear and simple terms, provides a wealth of glossed examples to illustrate them, and helps students to put their learning into practice through a range of fun and engaging exercises. Clearly organized into thirty units, each covering a different aspect of the grammar, the book functions both as an essential reference guide and as a comprehensive workbook.
As a return to the grammar instruction courses of the past would be unacceptable, a supposed solution was devised - a system which became known as new or functional grammar. This system involved the generalisation of grammatical terms.