This study should be of interest to both civilian and military consumers of analysis and the analysts and modelers who seek to inform development of military forces and doctrine. The work reported here was conducted in RAND’s National Defense Research Institute (NDRI) and Project AIR FORCE. These organizations are federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Staff, Unified Commands, and Defense Agencies; and for the United States Air Force, respectively....
Parallel Processing & Distributed Systems: Lecture 1 Introduction What is parallel processing? Why do we use parallel processing? Applications, Parallelism, Parallelism, Application Demands, Grand Challenge Problems, Parallel Processing Terminology.
Their goals were significant: Each participant was asked to identify one or two “Grand Challenges” that could galvanize both the scientific community and the public around the possibilities for neuroscience in the 21st century. This idea of identifying Grand Challenges has a strong history in science. For example, as Kathie Olsen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, reminded
A new U.S. grand strategy has been emerging, one that requires not only resources but patience and commitment: the promotion of democracy and freedom abroad. The U.S. armed forces will continue to be among the myriad contributors necessary to achieve this goal. In the face of increasing complexity, changing
However, engineering freshmen are less interested in what was or what is than they are in what will be.
Young men and women exploring engineering as a career are excited about the future—their future—and
about the engineering challenges 10 to 20 years from now when they are in the spring and summer of
their careers. In the words of the four-time Stanley Cup winner and Hockey Hall of Fame member Wayne
I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it’s been.
A sustainable energy future with a stable global climate is central to the present worldwide debate on climate change due to the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the main greenhouse gas (GHG) from human activities.
The charge to this committee—to envision the future of geotechnology—
is at once a grand challenge and a problem. In
many ways, geotechnology is a mature field having come to its
majority in the last 50 years. Many serious problems have been
solved. We know how to build strong foundations, safe dams,
and stable roads and tunnels. We have a good understanding
about the behavior and protection of groundwater, how to
extract the petroleum resources, and develop a geothermal
Environmental challenges act as a spur to invention and innovation. R&D will continue to be important
as companies and investors seek disruptive technology solutions that can change the economics of,
and rewards from, new environmental products or processes. Significant private and public funds have
already been established, many of which are still investing despite the current economic slowdown.
The short‐term challenge is to ensure that these funds continue to flow and to sustain future growth.
As multimedia-enabled mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets are becoming the day-to-day computing device of choice for users of all ages, everyone expects that all mobile multimedia applications and services should be as smooth and as high-quality as the desktop experience. The grand challenge in delivering multimedia to mobile devices using the Internet is to ensure the quality of experience that meets the users' expectations, within reasonable costs, while supporting heterogeneous platforms and wireless network conditions. ...
This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science, computer vision and signal processing, cognitive science, web science, etc....
On June 25, 2008, more than 70 of the leading neuroscientists in the
world gathered at the National Academy of Sciences building in Wash-
ington, DC, for a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine’s
(IOM’s) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders titled,
“From Molecules to Mind: Challenges for the 21st Century.” Their goals
were significant: Each participant was asked to identify one or two
“Grand Challenges” that could galvanize both the scientific community
and the public around the possibilities for neuroscience in the 21st cen-
When the ancient Roman sites were rediscovered
in the eighteenth century, a vast array of objects was
unearthed that provided detailed information about
Roman life and art. News of the discoveries traveled
fast, and soon a visit to Naples and the excavation
sites became the southernmost stop on the Grand
Tour of the Continent, an extended journey through
Europe taken by wealthy young intellectuals. Tourists
also were intrigued by the periodic bursts of activity
from Mount Vesuvius, which erupted on a smaller
scale several times in the eighteenth and nineteenth
The George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation
(NEES) is a collaboratory for integrated experimentation, computation,
theory, databases, and model-based simulation in earthquake engineering
research and education intended to improve the seismic design
and performance of the U.S. civil and mechanical infrastructure. Administered
by the National Science Foundation (NSF), NEES is mandated to
be operational by September 30, 2004.
Complex software-based systems today power the Nation’s most advanced defense, security, and economic
capabilities. Such systems also play central roles in science and engineering discovery, and thus are essential
in addressing this century’s grand challenges (e.g., low-cost, carbon-neutral, and renewable energy; clean
water; next-generation health care; extreme manufacturing; space exploration, etc.). These large-scale systems
typically must remain operational, useful, and relevant for decades.
Appreciating the complexity of interrelated problems and re-
gional dimensions is a first step towards assessing what capa-
bilities are required. The challenges facing Afghanistan
represent a combination of terrorism and organised crime,
involving drug trafficking and illegal arms trading, in a wid-
er regional dimension, where radicalisation is rife. Terrorism
and sectarian instability are actively advanced by both non-
state actors and regional players.
Power comes in many guises. Among them is the power to set the terms of the debate,
to structure the patterns of thought and language, the fundamental taken-for-granted
assumptions, which shape our approaches to problems and solutions. If, indeed, the current
situation is untenable, if the dominant categories no longer address the dominant problems,
then these terms must be challenged and opened to new debate and directions.
We present a grand challenge to build a corpus that will include all of the world’s languages, in a consistent structure that permits large-scale cross-linguistic processing, enabling the study of universal linguistics. The focal data types, bilingual texts and lexicons, relate each language to one of a set of reference languages. We propose that the ability to train systems to translate into and out of a given language be the yardstick for determining when we have successfully captured a language. ...
Although the vision of P2P systems is grand, the technical challenges associated with them are immense, and as a
result the realization of the vision has been elusive. Because the membership in the system is ad-hoc and dynamic, it is
very difﬁcult to predict or reason about the location and quality of the system’s resources. For example, the placement
of data in content-sharing systems is often na¨ ıve: data placement is largely demand driven, with little regard given to
network bandwidth, load, or historical trustworthiness of the peer on which the data is placed.
The success of Ambria inspired additional trips to Europe to study food and style. As a
result of such visits, LEYE opened Un Grand Café, a French bistro, and the sophisticated
Italian restaurant, Avanzare. The success of these establishments earned LEYE
increased recognition across the country for its international expertise and flair.
Never content to leave things as they are, Melman is constantly open to embracing innovative ideas and
The main focus of this publication is the link between South Africa’s grand pan-African ambitions, especially in the area of peace, security and governance, and its own capacity to pursue these objectives. Specifically, the paper examines Pretoria’s involvement in Africa, and internal capacity to support its mediation, peacekeeping and strengthening the abilities of African institutions for peacemaking.