As for formal features, in recent advertisements abstraction is found not as a
flat composition of graphical or animated elements, but as a reduction of pho-
tographic images to a painterly arrangement of light and colour. However, the
arrangement of the visuals based on music harks back to the concept of rhythm
so central in the modernist avant-garde.
When sitting in statistics classes or when trying to read and understand
statistical material, too many otherwise intelligent and capable students and
researchers feel dumb. This book is intended as an antidote. It is designed to
make you feel smart and competent. Its approach is conservative in that it
attempts to identify and present the essentials of data analysis as developed by
statisticians over the last two or three centuries.
Graphical techniques reveal that there is a strong correlation between turnover rates and the ﬁrm’s
decision not to offer health insurance, and this pattern holds both in the aggregate (Figure 4) and when
ﬁrm size is controlled for (Figure 5). In each ﬁgure, the average turnover rate is measured on the
horizontal axis and the proportion of ﬁrms not offering health insurance is measured on the vertical
The simple relationships between the private saving ratio and the top tax rates are displayed in the
top two charts in Figure 3.
Each point represents the private saving ratio and top tax rate for
each year since 1945. The nature of the relationship is illustrated by the straight line in the figure,
which graphically represents the correlation (fitted relationship or fitted values) between the two
The slope of the fitted values line indicates how one variable changes when the other