Grassland ecosystems

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  • Large herbivores are, and have for a long time been, among the major drivers for forming the shape and function of terrestrial ecosystems. These animals may modify primary production, nutrient cycles, soil properties, fire regimes as well as other biota. Some large herbivore species/populations are at the edge of extinction and great effort is being made to save them. Other species/populations are under discussion for reintroduction. Still other species occur in dense populations and cause conflicts with other land use interests.

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  • Today, the world faces many problems. The most important problem is the population explosion. The population of 2.8 billion around 1945 doubled during the following 50 years, and it will approximately double again, reaching 10 billion during the next 50 years. This population increase will produce serious effects on worldwide food consumption and distribution; however, a sharp production increase in agricultural products cannot be expected.

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  • Ptackova Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2011, 1:4 http://www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/1/1/4 RESEARCH Open Access Sedentarisation of Tibetan nomads in China: Implementation of the Nomadic settlement project in the Tibetan Amdo area; Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces Jarmila Ptackova Correspondence: jptackova@gmail. com Humboldt University, Department of Central Asia, Institute for Asian and African Studies, Invalidenstrasse 118, 10115 Berlin, Germany Abstract Sedentarisation efforts have been part of the Chinese policy on the Tibetan grassland since the 1960s.

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  • UNIT 2 : BIOMES AND ECOSYSTEMS Influenced by latitude, elevation, and associated moisture and temperature regimes, terrestrial biomes vary geographically from the tropics through the arctic and include various types of forest, grassland, shrub land, and desert. These biomes also include their associated freshwater communities: streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Marine environments, also considered biomes by some ecologists, comprise the open ocean, littoral (shallow water) regions, benthic (bottom) regions, rocky shores, sandy shores, estuaries, and associated tidal marshes.

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  • Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud forests, Arctic and high latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate‐induced disturbances. Enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries.

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  • The World Bank’s mission is to alleviate poverty and support sustainable development. The conservation and sustainable use of natural habitats and biodiversity will contribute to these goals by protecting ecosystem services that are critical to fulfilling these objectives. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries. Biological resources provide the raw materials for livelihoods, sustenance, medicines, trade, tourism, and industry.

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  • Critical loads are typically expressed as deposition loading rates of one or more pollutants in amount per area per year (e.g., kilo- grams per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr)). Critical loads are based on changes to specific biological or chemical indicators such as species composition of a given ecosystem (e.g., grassland) or biotic community (e.g., understory plants or tree-dwelling lichens) or acid neu- tralizing capacity (ANC) in soils, streams or lakes. Because different sensitive receptors (e.g.

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