Shleifer and Vishny (1997) elaborate on
this point and suggest that the benefits from concentrated ownership are relatively larger
in countries that are generally less developed, where property rights are not well defined
and/or protected by judicial systems.
The use of industrially manufactured nitrogen (N)
fertilizers increased rapidly in developed countries
between 1960 and 1980. This facilitated a large increase
in the production of feed and food grains (maize, wheat,
and rice) per unit of cultivated land, but in some regions it
also contributed to enrichment of surface and groundwater
with various forms of nitrogen. Fertilizer, however, is not
the only source of nitrogen that can cause contamination of
It must be noted that on 12 July 2010 the Commission proposed the extension of investor
compensation schemes to cover investors in UCITS. The amendments to Directive 97/9/EC
aimed to cover situations where a depositary is liable for the loss of assets of UCITS but is not
able to cover its liabilities. This should serve as an additional means to increase the protection
for investors in UCITS. However, at this stage this proposal has not been accepted by the
Council and is subject to further negotiations.
A banking entity may invest in or sponsor a covered
fund if (i) the banking entity is not directly or indirectly
controlled by a U.S. banking entity;
53 (ii) the banking en-
tity is a “foreign banking organization,” or, if not a foreign
banking organization, meets at least two of the following
tests: (a) total non-U.S. assets exceed total U.S. assets;
(b) total non-U.S. revenues exceed total U.S. revenues;
and (c) total non-U.S. income exceeds total U.S. income;
(iii) no ownership interests in the covered fund are of-
fered or sold to a U.S.
The ubiquitous learning activity in the present study was held at the Taipei Zoo. The
Taipei Zoo is one of the main Natural Science Education centres in Taiwan, where
people can acquire knowledge about animals and nature. Since the topic of the
learning activity was related to animals, it was more appropriate for learners to learn
in the zoo. Learning in the zoo enabled learners to experience an experiential learning.
In this paper, we
employ the bias-adjusted matching estimator developed by Abadie and Imbens (2006), which
overcomes this difficulty. The matching estimator analysis maps the multiple matching variables
into a single number that measures the distance to the observation to be matched and selects as
control observations those with the lowest value for this distance. Matching estimators,
therefore, make it possible to use several matching variables simultaneously.
Regardless of the motivation, sponsor behavior observed through these support instances suggests that
while the costs can be significant, the perceived benefits at the time of support were greater to most fund
sponsors. Understanding both the significance to the sponsor and their motivations would be important in
making judgments as to whether investors should reasonably expect this model to continue, as it is
possible that the sponsor value proposition could shift, especially where necessary support amounts are
Global warming is theenvironmental issue of the twenty-first century.
Many believe it ranks with war and poverty as one of the greatest
challenges to human well-being. But unlike war and poverty, which
humanity has confronted for millennia, global warming is a recent
concern. And unlike war and poverty, global warming is mainly a pro-spective threat and one that can in principle be met with pre-emptive
A second source for private sector expenditure on R&D is the “EU Industrial R&D
Investment Scoreboard”, which has been conducted by the Institute for Prospective
Technological Studies (IPTS) that is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European
Commission. The annual Scoreboard presents information on the world’s top 1400
companies ranked by their investments in R&D. It contains data drawn from companies’
accounts, most recently for the fiscal year 2009.
R&D indicators, such as R&D intensity, vary in line with the business cycle.
Leadership is one of the most important and essential factors in good project
management. Leadership can be seen as the art of influencing others to achieve desired
results. Leaders guide behaviors by setting the vision, direction and the key processes; in
other words, leadership has a large influence on the whole project process, including the
actions of others.
Jack Welch, previous CEO of General Electric, is reported to have called his
direct reports together one day and issued a three word dictum: “Don’t manage!
Since each retailer has a monopoly power through the captive consumers, the strategies
employed in the oligopolistic equilibrium depend on the pricing behavior of a hyphotetical
monopolist facing the captive consumers. Before proceeding to solving the
oligopoly model we will illustrate the optimal behavior of the consumers facing any price
pair and, subsequently, prot-maximizing strategy of the monopolist.
Fourth, this study applies new methodologies which have never been applied to
emerging markets. For instance, Chapter 5 explores the determinants of risk-adjusted mutual
fund performance using multidimensional regression in addition to the common approach,
which is to use a zero-cost trading strategy. This alternative methodology can explore several
factors simultaneously while controlling the effect between one and another. Using the two
methods allows us to examine determinants of fund performance statistically and
economically and it provides more meaningful results.
Use of vocabulary is an important aspect of academic writing. Again, following
Storch and Tapper (2009), we examined the occurrences of vocabulary in the
Academic Word List (AWL) developed by Coxhead (2000). The AWL consists of
570 word families derived from a corpus of academic texts drawn from our ‘sub-
corpora’ from arts, commerce, law, and science (see Coxhead, 2000 for details).
These words are academic words that are found across disciplines and comprise
9-10% of an academic text (Storch & Tapper, 2009).
However, this model is complicated by the fact that
conflicts often occur in mixed-motive relationships where the involved
parties both have cooperative and competitive goals and Mitchell’s model
seems to have neglected this pluralistic/multifaceted/more complex
dimension to the relationship.
The competitive element creates conflict
and the cooperative element creates incentives to negotiate an
There are, however, studies that confirm that conflicts tend
to occur even when the involved parties have highly compatible goals.
Identify and quantity all benefits associated with the final product of the project.
Attempt to put a financial value on each benefit, so that the benefits are tangible.
During project scoping Critical Requirements Analysis will have identified and
qualified the major requirements. The technique requires that "Performance
Criteria" and "Performance Levels" be identified for each Critical Performance Area
(CPA). The major requirements will be identified and associated with the
Many distributed storage systems achieve high data access through-
put via partitioning and replication, each system with its own ad-
vantages and tradeoffs. In order to achieve high scalability, how-
ever, today’s systems generally reduce transactional support, disal-
lowing single transactions fromspanning multiple partitions. Calvin
is a practical transaction scheduling and data replication layer that
uses a deterministic ordering guarantee to signiﬁcantly reduce the
normally prohibitive contention costs associated with distributed
The changes to the spectrum management framework that are presented in the redeployment plan
follow the guiding principles established in the Spectrum Policy 30-896 MHz, Part II, issued in
April, 95 and the consultation with the Radio Advisory Board of Canada. The Department will
use several spectrum management tools, including policy, equipment certification and
authorization provisions, to achieve the redeployment objectives. Also, the plan provides
incentives for voluntary early deployment of more spectrum efficient technologies, i.e.
During the year of this study, I taught three sections of English with a total of 61
students. A wide range of my students’ abilities and the presence of English Language
Learners (ELL) in my classroom presented me with many challenges. Components of
my instruction included the Houghton-Mifflin textbook series, Daily Oral Language,
traditional grammar activities, and other supplemental materials. After several weeks of
instruction I was disappointed in my students’ inability to demonstrate proper writing
As we noted in our October 1990 report on nonpoint source pollution,
obtaining data on this type of pollution is especially problematic and
costly because the sources are diffuse and the pollution from these
sources can be episodic, Project officials have been able to offset this
problem, to some degree, by ensuring that any trades clearly result in
water quality improvements. Under the DilIon Reservoir project, for
example, point source dischargers earn 1...