Groundwater treatment

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  • As the global population grows and many developing countries modernize, the importance of water supply and water treatment becomes a much greater factor in the welfare of nations. In similar fashion, the need to address both domestic and industrial wastes generated by these nations moves higher on the scale of importance. Clearly, in today’s world the competition for water resources coupled with the unfortunate commingling of wastewater discharges with freshwater supplies creates additional pressure on treatment systems....

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  • The purpose of this text is to provide the basis for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate course over one or two semesters, covering basic concepts and examples of fluid mechanics with particular applications in the natural environment. The book is designed to meet a dual purpose, providing an advanced fundamental background in the fluid mechanics of environmental systems and also applying fluid mechanics principles to a variety of environmental issues.

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  • About 70% of the world’s population dwells in coastal zones. With the economic and population growth, the shortage in freshwater supply becomes increasingly acute. With surface water more and more depleted and polluted, coastal communities have turned to groundwater to make up for the shortfall. For domestic supply purposes, the percentage of groundwater use has increased to more than 40% on a worldwide basis.

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  • AbstractHumidity is one of the main causes of decay in buildings, particularly rising damp, caused by the migration of moisture from the ground through the materials of the walls and floors via capillary action. This water comes from groundwater and surface water. The height that moisture will reach through cap illary action depends upon factors such as the quantity of water in contact with the particular part of the building, surface evaporation conditions, wall thickness, building orientation and the presence of salts.

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  • The DSS will enable examination of existing conditions, forecasting of future conditions, and simulation of alternatives that will be ecologically sustaining and socially desired. The DSS will address watershed, water quality, water quantity, groundwater and ecosystem restoration needs at the small watershed, major watershed, tributary river, and main stem Minnesota River reach levels of spatial scale. The DSS will enable forecasting future conditions.

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  • A decision support system (DSS) will be developed, using the results of the MRB model system and other existing watershed DSSs to enable decision-making about investments in watershed management, aquatic ecosystem restoration, water quality, water quantity, and groundwater management measures in the MRB. The DSS will be explicitly designed to meet sponsor needs. The DSS will be linked to the Basin GIS to enable visualization of the spatial arrangement of management measures.

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  • Hydrology is a branch of scientific and engineering discipline that deals with the occurrence, distribution, movement, and properties of the waters of the earth. A knowledge of hydrology is fundamental to water and environmental professionals (engineers, scientists and decision makers) in such tasks as the design and operation of water resources, wastewater treatment, irrigation, flood defence, navigation, pollution control, hydropower, ecosystem modelling, etc.

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  • Near-Surface Geochemistry – Near-surface geochemistry methods can be used to detect shortterm rapid loss or long-term intermittent leakage of CO2 from GS formations. These techniques are routinely employed in the environmental consulting industry and include monitoring soil gas and shallow groundwater. In general, both consist of purging the monitoring point and collecting a sample, followed by analysis and interpretation. Soil gas can be collected with sorbents, sample tubes, or Tedlar bags, depending on the compounds expected and the detection level.

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  • Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.

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  • The water problems in Asia’s cities are similar. These include sources and uses of raw water, the large propor-tion of water loss in distribution networks, intermittent supply, and the quality of tap water. In some cities, the excessive use of groundwater resources has caused serious environmental problems, including rapid deple-tion of groundwater, deterioration of water quality, and land subsidence.

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  • Intensity of use of freshwater resources (both surface and groundwater) is expressed as gross abstractions per capita, as a percentage of total available renewable freshwater resources, including inflows from neighbouring countries (see below) and as a percentage of internal resources. It has to be noted that when measured at national level these indicators may hide significant variations at territorial level. Wastewater treatment connection rates show the percentage of the national population actually connected to public waste water treatment plants.

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  • In addition to the creation of more wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The high concentration of impervious surfaces increases runoff from roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils, heavy metals, rubber, and other automobile pollution into waterways and streams. The reduction in water percolation into the ground can also affect the quantity and quality of groundwater. Stormwater runoff in urban areas can overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment systems when high volume flows exceed treatment capacities.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide and catalyst solutions needed for Fenton's Reagent are usually added to the treatment area by pressure injection into one or more designated chemical oxidation injection wells, or gravity injection into one or more monitoring or other wells. In pressure injection, compressed air is used to sparge the ferrous iron catalyst and relatively large volumes of peroxide solution (e.g., hundreds to thousands of gallons) into the contaminated soil and groundwater over a short period of time (e.g., days).

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