It is intended that this book be suitable for a variety of engineers and ecologists, who
may wish to gain an introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and
environmental modelling. An understanding of the fundamentals of environmental
problems and ecology, as presented for instance in the textbook Principles of
Environmental Science and Technology is assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that
the reader has either a fundamental knowledge of differential equations and matrix
calculations or has read the Appendix, which gives a brief introduction to these
Chapter 4: Overview of Use-Case-Driven Process:
Transform use-case model into analysis model (1/4);
Transform use-case model into analysis model (2/4); The analysis model grows incrementally, for each iteration, select a set of use cases
This book has two main goals: to provide a unifed and structured overview of this growing field, as well as to propose a corresponding software framework, the OpenTL library, developed by the author and his working group at TUM-Informatik.
The main objective of this work is to show, how most real-world application scenarios can be naturally cast into a common description vocabulary, and therefore implemented and tested in a fully modular and scalable way, through the defnition of a layered, object-oriented software architecture.
In the quest for knowledge, it is not uncommon for researchers to push the limits
of simulation techniques to the point where they have to be adapted or totally new
techniques or approaches become necessary. True multiscale modeling techniques
are becoming increasingly necessary given the growing interest in materials and
processes on which large-scale properties are dependent or that can be tuned by their
low-scale properties. An example would be nanocomposites, where embedded nanostructures
completely change the matrix properties due to effects occurring at the
From a banking group’s perspective, a range of factors play a role in the choice of
branching versus subsidiarization, including banks’ business focus and differences in
regulatory and tax regimes across jurisdictions. Banks with significant wholesale operations
tend to prefer a more centralized branch model that provides the flexibility to manage
liquidity and credit risks globally and serve the needs of large clients.
We investigate the empirical behavior of ngram discounts within and across domains. When a language model is trained and evaluated on two corpora from exactly the same domain, discounts are roughly constant, matching the assumptions of modiﬁed Kneser-Ney LMs. However, when training and test corpora diverge, the empirical discount grows essentially as a linear function of the n-gram count. We adapt a Kneser-Ney language model to incorporate such growing discounts, resulting in perplexity improvements over modiﬁed Kneser-Ney and Jelinek-Mercer baselines. ...
Unsupervised word alignment is most often modeled as a Markov process that generates a sentence f conditioned on its translation e. A similar model generating e from f will make different alignment predictions. Statistical machine translation systems combine the predictions of two directional models, typically using heuristic combination procedures like grow-diag-ﬁnal. This paper presents a graphical model that embeds two directional aligners into a single model.
Introduction to hydrodynamic modelling and
The present text introduces hydrodynamic modelling principles in the context of batch wet
granulation and coating systems and it reviews the latest achievements and proposals in the
scientific literature in this field. The text concerns primarily the Eulerian and the Lagrangian
modelling technique. In accordance with some of the latest published Ph.d. thesis in the field of
hydrodynamics modelling, the Lagrangian technique is divided into a soft-particle and a hardsphere
his book has two main goals: to provide a unifed and structured overview of this growing field, as well as to propose a corresponding software framework, the OpenTL library, developed by the author and his working group at TUM-Informatik.
The main objective of this work is to show, how most real-world application scenarios can be naturally cast into a common description vocabulary, and therefore implemented and tested in a fully modular and scalable way, through the defnition of a layered
There is a growing research interest in opinion retrieval as on-line users’ opinions are becoming more and more popular in business, social networks, etc. Practically speaking, the goal of opinion retrieval is to retrieve documents, which entail opinions or comments, relevant to a target subject specified by the user’s query. A fundamental challenge in opinion retrieval is information representation.
This paper presents a discriminative pruning method of n-gram language model for Chinese word segmentation. To reduce the size of the language model that is used in a Chinese word segmentation system, importance of each bigram is computed in terms of discriminative pruning criterion that is related to the performance loss caused by pruning the bigram. Then we propose a step-by-step growing algorithm to build the language model of desired size.
Given the growing complexity of tasks that spoken dialogue systems are trying to handle, Reinforcement Learning (RL) has been increasingly used as a way of automatically learning the best policy for a system to make. While most work has focused on generating better policies for a dialogue manager, very little work has been done in using RL to construct a better dialogue state. This paper presents a RL approach for determining what dialogue features are important to a spoken dialogue tutoring system. ...
This book grows out of 20 years’ banking research and training of bankers in
Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia. As deregulation and competition are
reducing margins around the world, the need for knowledge on Asset and
Liability Management, the control of bank’s profit and risks, becomes an
absolute necessity for any banker in charge of a profit centre, central bankers
in charge of bank supervision, and banks’ auditors, consultants or lawyers.
Engineering for sustainability is an emerging theme for the twenty-first century,
and the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a critical
part of this new thrust. Renewable energy systems that take advantage of
energy sources that won’t diminish over time and are independent of fluctuations
in price and availability are playing an ever-increasing role in modern power
In recognition of the enormous advances in
biotechnology in recent years, we are pleased
to present this Second Edition of “Biotechnology”
relatively soon after the introduction
of the First Edition of this multi-volume comprehensive
treatise. Since this series was extremely
well accepted by the scientific community,
we have maintained the overall goal of
creating a number of volumes, each devoted to
a certain topic, which provide scientists in
academia, industry, and public institutions
with a well-balanced and comprehensive overview
of this growing field.
Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s
in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the
environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial
and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings,
in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides
may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems.
They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.
A considerable part of the vast development in Mathematical Finance over
the last two decades was determined by the application of stochastic methods.
These were therefore chosen as the focus of the 2003 School on “Stochastic
Methods in Finance”. The growing interest of the mathematical community in
this field was also reflected by the extraordinarily high number of applications
for the CIME-EMS School. It was attended by 115 scientists and researchers,
selected from among over 200 applicants. The attendees came from all continents:
85 were Europeans, among them 35 Italians.
This chapter deals with the most basic concepts in finance: future value, present value,
and internal rate of return. These concepts tell you how much your money will grow if deposited
in a bank (future value), how much promised future payments are worth today (present value),
and what percentage rate of return you’re getting on your investments (internal rate of return).
Success with Facebook applications is one part idea, one part technical, and one part execution. Mike’s book does an amazing job covering all three. He takes you from evaluating your idea and thinking about platform strategy through every step of building the application and then even covers advanced strategies and considerations for scaling. This book will save you a tremendous amount of time learning the platform and building a successful viral application.
During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new
empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function
at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been
sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming
more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive,
indeed formerly unimaginable rates.