Acne is a disorder of the body’s pilosebaceous units.
Each unit consists of a sebaceous gland and a
canal or follicle, which is lined with cells called
keratinocytes and which contains a fine hair. Most
numerous in the skin of the face, upper back, and
chest, sebaceous glands manufacture an oily substance
called sebum, which is released onto the skin’s surface
through the follicle’s opening, or pore.
All the constituents of the narrow follicle—the hair,
sebum, and keratinocytes—may form a plug that
prevents the sebum from reaching the surface of the
skin through the pore.
Presbycusis (age-associated hearing loss) is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the early stages, it is characterized by symmetric, gentle to sharply sloping high-frequency hearing loss. With progression, the hearing loss involves all frequencies.
More importantly, the hearing impairment is associated with significant loss in clarity. There is a loss of discrimination for phonemes, recruitment (abnormal growth of loudness), and particular difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments.
The role of the placental bed in normal pregnancy and
its complications has been intensively investigated for
50 years, following the introduction of a technique for
placental bed biopsy. It is now recognized that disorders
of the maternal–fetal interface in humans have
been implicated in a broad range of pathological conditions,
including spontaneous abortion, preterm
labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia,
intrauterine growth restriction, abruptio
placentae, and fetal death.
Patients with AN typically have few physical complaints but may note cold intolerance. Gastrointestinal motility is diminished, leading to reduced gastric emptying and constipation. Some women who develop AN after menarche report that their menses ceased before significant weight loss occurred. Weight and height should be measured to allow calculation of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Vital signs may reveal bradycardia, hypotension, and mild hypothermia. Soft, downy hair growth (lanugo) sometimes occurs, and alopecia may be seen.
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. (This includes a failure to achieve weight gain expected during a period of growth leading to an abnormally low body weight.)
Intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat.
Distortion of body image (e.g., feeling fat despite an objectively low weight or minimizing the seriousness of low weight).
Amenorrhea. (This criterion is met if menstrual periods occur only following hormone—e.g., estrogen—administration.
Both cross-border and domestic bank credit are (generally) denominated in multiple
currencies. The BIS international banking statistics in combination with domestic bank credit
data from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics, along with some assumptions, yield an
estimate of the currency breakdown of total credit to non-banks (either including or excluding
bank credit to governments) in a particular country. This breakdown allows us to express
credit stocks at constant exchange rates (in this particular case, end-Q2 2011 rates).
cilia are involved in diverse cellular functions, such as patterning of left-right asymmetry (nodal cilia), limb development, bone morphogenesis, and neurosensory functions (mechanosensation, olfaction, and photoreception). Cilia are also implicated in several developmental cascades, such as Wnt signaling, sonic hedgehog signaling, and platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways.
These are exciting times for the diverse group of surgeons who perform craniomaxillofacial surgery.
The AO/ASIF (Swiss Association of Internal Fixation) has played a crucial role in the growth of
this field through its leadership in research, teaching, and cooperation with industry. As clinicians
fascinated by the extraordinary progress in the field, the goal is to advance this new knowledge
by teaching AO/ASIF courses and writing textbooks that supplement these courses and related
Rational use of haematinic drugs is essential to the correction of anaemia in its various forms. The emergence of haemopoietic growth factors as drugs that stimulate erythroid or myeloid cell lines has opened the way to successful management of other forms of haematological disease. Iron: therapy, acute overdose Vitamin B12 (cobalamins) Folic acid Haemopoietic growth factors Sickle cell anaemia Polycythaemia rubra vera Aplastic anaemia
'colouring matter' of the blood and the 'defective nature of the colouring matter' in anaemia were recognised.
It is reported that the growth of furniture and home furnishing retailer sales value in the
United States exceeded $100 billion in 2003, and kept increasing to $123 billion in 2007
(U.S. Census Bureau 2008). However, domestically produced furniture among these
retailer sales has declined by more than $5 billion between 2000 and 2003. An increasing
share of furniture imports from other countries, especially Asian countries, fills the gap
between domestic consumption and production.
Despite of the fact that Achilles tendon rupture is not a very common injury, it has
always attracted a great attention. Hippocrates is believed to be the first who wrote
about its treatment, but the first description of the Achilles tendon rupture can be
found in the works of Ambrois Pare in 1575. “Modern” concepts of conservative as
well as operative treatment with many proposed methods can be found since 1929 in
works of Quenu and Stojanović. These works still attract attention and many
publications still arise every year....
Therapeutic immunosuppression has very broad applications in clinical medicine,
ranging from prevention and treatment of organ and bone marrow transplant
rejection, management of various autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis),
skin diseases, allergies and asthma. Whereas traditionally only a small repertoire of
immunosuppressive agents was available for clinical use, recent discoveries have
significantly increased the number of approved agents, resulting in numerous trials to
further evaluate their potential.
Apoptosis in the developing nervous system results in naturally occurring
cell death (NOCD), a necessary and desirable process. NOCD effectively
eliminates neurons that have made faulty synapses or have not reached
In the rest of the organism, apoptosis is essential for
organogenesis, sculpts digits and extremities, and plays a role in determining
polarity of structures by contributing to directional growth of cell populations.
Failure of carefully orchestrated and effective apoptosis in the developing
fetus can have serious and long-lasting effects in the adult.
Early researchers in the field played down individual
personality disturbances as causal agents of
family violence in favour of social and cultural
factors (27). More recently, though, research on
family violence has shown that abusers who are
physically aggressive are more likely to have
personality disorders and alcohol-related problems
than the general population (28).
Our starting point is the series of discourses that take as their object of concern the structures
and regulation of professions. To an extent this involves a brief elaboration of the work of
theorists of professionals. Our concern, however, is not to provide a review of the literature
on professions, rather this section explores how professionals and regulators draw upon such
theories in making sense of their world, and changes to it.
The main reasons why some companies fail in the apparel and footwear industry includes relying on a single
product line, market segment, or sales channel. In order to survive, companies must constantly come up with new
designs, new product line extensions, or even new product lines. These products may be developed either internally
or externally through acquiring other companies and/or licensing agreements. An advantage of acquisitions include
eliminating competitors and at the same time increasing product lines and market share.
Local government needs to decide to use its
resources and assets in an innovative way, and
provide sufficient stability and a level playing field
to give business the confidence to invest in a place.
From now on, city leaders must establish the market
rules within which decisions are made. It is up to
them to set long-term priorities. A population
enjoying improved health and well-being offers a
more attractive workforce for business and industry.
A city that supports sustainability will also support
Melanoma and Other Tumors Melanoma is the most common primary tumor of the eye (Fig. 29-18). It causes photopsia, an enlarging scotoma, and loss of vision. A small melanoma is often difficult to differentiate from a benign choroidal nevus. Serial examinations are required to document a malignant pattern of growth. Treatment of melanoma is controversial. Options include enucleation, local resection, and irradiation. Metastatic tumors to the eye outnumber primary tumors. Breast and lung carcinoma have a special propensity to spread to the choroid or iris.
In Mozambique, Pathfinder is going beyond traditional maternal and child health to ensure
the survival of children into adulthood. In addition to their traditional role distributing family planning
information and products, CHWs have begun distributing water-purification solution and insecticide-treated
bed nets for malaria prevention to pregnant women and mothers of children under five. They are promoting
exclusive breast-feeding to the age of six-months, iron and folate supplements for pregnant women, growth
monitoring, deworming, and proper nutrition.
The medical devices industry is booming. Growth in the industry has not stopped despite
globally fluctuating economies. The main reason for this success is probably the self-sustaining
nature of health care. In essence, the same technology that makes it possible for
people to live longer engenders the need for more health-care technologies to enhance the
quality of an extended lifetime. It comes as no surprise, then, that the demand for trained
medical-device designers has increased tremendously over the past few years.