GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe technologies for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks. Developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony.
Hard to fathom, but it really wasn't all that long ago that even a plain
old telephone was a luxury item. But, as we all know, technology's only
constant is change. In this day and age, many folks need to be accessible
everywhere, whether they're at work or play, in the office or at
home. To meet this demand, the GSM standard (Global System for Mobile
Communications) for mobile telephony was introduced in the mid-
1980s. Today, GSM is the most popular mobile radio standard in the
world. A boom is underway, such that many GSM users find life without
their phone practically inconceivable....
Some experts started working on, or maybe we should say dreaming about, third generation mobile communications in the mid-1980s, even before second generation mobile communications took shape in GSM. UMTS was invented then. It was initially just a vague concept, something which had to one day take over from GSM and therefore had to be superior to GSM. There was also a view that the capacity of GSM would be exhausted just after a few years and that UMTS should thus follow very quickly. This was not a workable proposal as the industry could not throw away GSM developments and...
The Invention of the Phase 21 Concept
In 1992 SMG had to stop adding new items to the phase 2 work programme. It was nevertheless clear that there would be something after phase 2. Some proposed to call it ‘‘phase 3’’. This would of course have later caused some confusion with third generation. But the actual reason why SMG rejected this expression is that it would have suggested a phase 2/phase 3 transition similar to the phase 1/phase 2 transition, while it was thought that, for this further evolution, one should aim at a full cross phase compatibility....
Since its conception in 1988 the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) has undergone continuous development extending its technical and functional capabilities. Initially, it was deﬁned as a security module to authenticate the user to the network providing, at the same time, some very limited amount of memory for network and private user data. In those days, smart cards were still in their infancy. The technological and market requirements of GSM, its need for a global solution and its growing market power shaped the face of the SIM and changed the world of the smart card....
This section reports about the early discussions in the 1882–1985 timeframe, the agreement on a service concept in February 1985 and the elaboration of the ﬁrst set of speciﬁcations needed for tendering of infrastructure by the operators in early 1988. A well structured and future-proof portfolio of tele-, bearer and supplementary services was speciﬁed.
The last decade proved to be hugely successful for the mobile communications industry,
characterised by continued and rapid growth in demand, spurred on by new technological
advances and innovative marketing techniques. Of course, when we refer to mobile communications,
we tend to implicitly refer to cellular systems, such as GSM. The plight of the
mobile-satellite industry over the last decade, although eventful, has, at times, been more akin
to an out of control roller coaster ride.
This book is a training document and contains simplifications.
Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the
The contents of this document are subject to revision without
notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and
Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage
resulting from the usage of this document.
This document is not intended to replace the technical
documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer
to that technical documentation during operation and
Past decade has seen a surge of research activities in the field of wireless communication. Emerging from this research thrust are new points of view on how to communicate effectively over wireless channels. The goal of this course is to study in a unified way the fundamentals as well as the new research developments. The concepts are illustrated using examples from several modern wireless systems (GSM, IS-95, CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO, Flarion's Flash OFDM, ArrayComm systems.)
This brief guide aims at explaining the basic steps for getting started with GPRS. It supposes you are a bit familiar with GPRS concepts, like network attachment, session or PDP context.
This guide is not intended to give full details about how GPRS works, all GPRS-specific AT commands (check out the GPRS AT command manual).
By default depending on the firmware version, the MS starts up either in class CG (i.e. in GPRS mode and not in GSM mode) or in class B.
Dramatic developments have been taking place in the mobile radio area all over the world during the last couple of decades. Mobile communications is one of the fastest growing markets in the telecommunications area. According to projections, there will be a linear increase in the number of subscribers to the major GSM networks operated in Europe by the end of the decade. The political environment in Europe is the main reason for the rapid development.