According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take
a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the
second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers
fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In
recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although
the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been
twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for
ten of the top 15 cancers in women.
Young doctors are the future of our Society. Therefore,
I am hoping to see a global network created for young
gynecologists who are interested in gynecologic cancer. If
young doctors from various countries start to communicate
effectively and share information with each other, we
can both improve and standardize cancer treatment and
contribute to the well-being of women worldwide. Education
for young doctors is very important because they are still
pure and have a sensitivity to share experiences of all kinds.
Each year , approximately 71,500 women in the United States are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer.
While all women are at risk for developing gynecologic cancers, few will ever develop one. Still, it is
important to know the signs because there is no way to know for sure who will get a gynecologic cancer.
The information included in this booklet will help you recognize any warning signs, so you can ask your health
care provider about them. These signs and symptoms often are related to something other than gynecologic
cancer. But it is...
Tham khảo tài liệu 'gynecological cancer patients’ differentiated use of help from a nurse navigator: a qualitative study', y tế - sức khoẻ, sức khỏe phụ nữ phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Ovarian cancer can no longer be considered one disease entity, but a heterogeneous group
of diseases. Our understanding of its clinical and molecular complexity is improving nota‐
bly over the last decade. This is of utmost importance when it comes to determine the most
adequate treatment strategy for each individual patient. Despite not being the most frequent
tumor, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst gynecological cancers.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 93. Gynecologic Malignancies
Incidence and Epidemiology Ovarian cancer can develop from three distinctive cell types (germ cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells), and each of these presents with distinctive features and outcomes and requires widely different management approaches. Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common of the three and the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States. In 2007, 22,430 new cases
were diagnosed, and 15,280 women died from ovarian cancer.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Ideally, it is
desirable to prevent or at least to detect cancer in the precancerous stage.
Early detection is possible by using Papanicolaou’s (Pap) test for cervical
cancer, biopsies for endometrial cancer, and mammography for breast cancer.
History plays a more major role in the detection of colorectal cancer,
because having first-degree relatives with colon cancer; a history of colorectal,
breast, endometrial, or ovarian cancer; and a history of adenomatous
polyps or ulcerative colitis are identified risk factors....
Gynecological cancers are most distressing to the patient and the family. This is so all over the world, but in resource-poor countries, it may be a death sentence with a painful journey from diagnosis to death itself. The economy of the country in which we live at the time of diagnosis, has a huge effect on our access to treatment.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancers: a critical review of the literature
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: " Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated, conformal, and four-field pelvic radiotherapy boost plans for gynecologic cancer: a retrospective planning study...
The most established nationwide medical registry in Germany is the Perinatal Registry, which collects
maternal health records concerning pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome from now more than
1100 hospitals. Over the past 16 years, data collection was transformed from printed questionnaires to
digital records. A special web-based information source of the German Perinatal Registry does not
Recent advances in clinical proteomics have propelled us into an exciting period of discovery of
new cancer biomarkers, although the available proteomic technologies have their limitations. The
principles of proteomic technology require stringent guidelines for the collection of clinical material,
the application of analytical techniques, and for our interpretation of the data.
In this review, we present an overview of the serum tumor markers in current use.
Cancers of the endometrium, ovary and cervix share
certain characteristics. However, etio-pathogenesis of all
the gynecological malignancies is yet to be explored. Even
though the etiologic factors are generally environmental,
the exact cause of each gynecological cancer is not known
(Senate Community Affairs References Committee,
Commonwealth of Australia, 2006). Worldwide, cancer
incidence rates vary widely between different geographic
regions and ethnic groups.
Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency
during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin
A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause
blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of
HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube
defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.
Gynecological cancers as a group comprise approximately 11% of female cancer.
United States, it is estimated that nearly 80,720 women will be diagnosed in 2009 with
gynecological cancers and that approximately 28,120 women will die as a result of these
cancers (accounting for 10%of all cancer-related deaths in women). Gynecological cancers
are typically diagnosed by history, physical examination, and selected imaging studies.
The pelvic examination begins with a visual inspection of the external geni-
talia using the assistance of a good light source. Although skin cancer is rare
in this region, it is often diagnosed late. Vulvar cancer can be hyperpig-
mented, erythematous, or hypopigmented, and any such lesions require care-
ful evaluation and often biopsy (see Chapter 17). Lichen sclerosus is a
relatively common condition in which the vulvar skin may appear like parch-
ment. It is more common in postmenopausal women, but occurs in all ages,
and can be associated with cancer. ...
Screening In contrast to patients who present with advanced disease, patients with early ovarian cancers (stages I and II) are commonly curable with conventional therapy. Thus, effective screening procedures would improve the cure rate in this disease. Although pelvic examination and CA-125 can occasionally detect early disease, these are relatively insensitive screening procedures. Transvaginal sonography is often used, but significant false-positive results are noted, particularly in premenopausal women.
In 1990, four of the ten leading causes of death in American women were chronic diseases
directly associated with modifiable behavioral factors including physical inactivity or
sedentary lifestyle. They were heart disease, certain forms of cancer (specifically, breast and
colon cancers), cerebrovascular disease (hypertension and stroke), and non-insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993).
Incidence and Epidemiology
Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common female pelvic malignancy. Approximately 39,080 new cases are diagnosed yearly, although in most (75%), tumor is confined to the uterine corpus at diagnosis, and therefore most can be cured. The 7400 deaths yearly make uterine cancer only the eighth leading cause of cancer death in females.
Clinical Presentation and Staging Patients with cervix cancer generally are asymptomatic, and the disease is detected on routine pelvic examination. Others present with abnormal bleeding or postcoital spotting that may increase to intermenstrual or prominent menstrual bleeding. Yellowish vaginal discharge, lumbosacral back pain, lower-extremity edema, and urinary symptoms may be present.
The staging of cervical carcinoma is clinical and generally completed with a pelvic examination under anesthesia with cystoscopy and proctoscopy.