H+ ion in water

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  • Acid: vị chua, làm thuốc nhuộm đổi màu Bases: vị đắng, cảm giác nhớt. Arrhenius: acids làm tăng [H+], bases làm tăng [OH-] trong dung dịch. Arrhenius: acid + base  salt + water. Problem: định nghĩa này chỉ áp dụng được trong dung dịch nước The H+ Ion in Water The H+(aq) ion is simply a proton with no electrons. (H has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons.) In water, the H+(aq) form clusters. The simplest cluster is H3O+(aq). Larger clusters are H5O2+ and H9O4+. Generally we use H+(aq) and H3O+(aq) interchangeably....

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  • The solubility of a partially soluble salt is decreased when a common ion is added. Consider the equilibrium established when acetic acid, HC2H3O2, is added to water. At equilibrium H+ and C2H3O2- are constantly moving into and out of solution, but the concentrations of ions is constant and equal. If a common ion is added, e.g. C2H3O2- from NaC2H3O2 (which is a strong electrolyte) then [C2H3O2-] increases and the system is no longer at equilibrium. So, [H+] must decrease.

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  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solute (present in smallest amount) and solvent (present in largest amount). • Solutes and solvent are components of the solution. • In the process of making solutions with condensed phases, intermolecular forces become rearranged. • Consider NaCl (solute) dissolving in water (solvent): – the water H-bonds have to be interrupted, – NaCl dissociates into Na+ and Cl-, – ion-dipole forces form: Na+ … d-OH2 and Cl- … d+H2O. – We say the ions are solvated by water. – If water is the solvent, we say the ions are hydrated....

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