Hair diseases

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  • Erythroderma (Table 54-2) Erythroderma is the term used when the majority of the skin surface is erythematous (red in color). There may be associated scale, erosions, or pustules as well as shedding of the hair and nails. Potential systemic manifestations include fever, chills, hypothermia, reactive lymphadenopathy, peripheral edema, hypoalbuminemia, and high-output cardiac failure. The major etiologies of erythroderma are (1) cutaneous diseases such as psoriasis and dermatitis (Table 54-3); (2) drugs; (3) systemic diseases, most commonly CTCL; and (4) idiopathic.

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  • To date, FDA-approved for men. b May also be scarring. Exposure to various drugs can also cause diffuse hair loss, usually by inducing a telogen effluvium. An exception is the anagen effluvium observed with antimitotic agents such as daunorubicin. Alopecia is a side effect of the following drugs: warfarin, heparin, propylthiouracil, carbimazole, vitamin A, isotretinoin, acitretin, lithium, beta blockers, colchicine, and amphetamines. Fortunately, spontaneous regrowth usually follows discontinuation of the offending agent.

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  • Acne is a disorder of the body’s pilosebaceous units. Each unit consists of a sebaceous gland and a canal or follicle, which is lined with cells called keratinocytes and which contains a fine hair. Most numerous in the skin of the face, upper back, and chest, sebaceous glands manufacture an oily substance called sebum, which is released onto the skin’s surface through the follicle’s opening, or pore. All the constituents of the narrow follicle—the hair, sebum, and keratinocytes—may form a plug that prevents the sebum from reaching the surface of the skin through the pore.

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  • Most patients with trichotillomania, pressure-induced alopecia. The most common causes of nonscarring alopecia include telogen effluvium, androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, tinea capitis, and some cases of traumatic alopecia (Table 54-5). In women with androgenetic alopecia, an elevation in circulating levels of androgens may be seen as a result of ovarian or adrenal gland dysfunction. When there are signs of virilization, such as a deepened voice and enlarged clitoris, the possibility of an ovarian or adrenal gland tumor should be considered.

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  • Systemic causes of nonpalpable purpura fall into several categories, and those secondary to clotting disturbances and vascular fragility will be discussed first. The former group includes thrombocytopenia (Chap. 109), abnormal platelet function as is seen in uremia, and clotting factor defects. The initial site of presentation for thrombocytopenia-induced petechiae is the distal lower extremity.

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  • It has long been noted anecdotally that affect, psychological state and neurologic state have influences on inflammatory skin diseases. Disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne and rosacea, among many others, are reported to become exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, it is widely believed that stress alters cutaneous immunity. However, mechanisms responsible for these effects have remained incompletely understood. Scientific evidence for an influence of the nervous system on immune and inflammatory processes in the skin has been developed only relatively recently.

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  • Shalom is one of the most beautiful words in existence. It literally means “nothing missing, nothing broken.”1 It also means to be completely whole in every way. Shalom is perfect peace.2 Our Lord Jesus is the Prince of Shalom. (Isa. 9:6.) His greatest desire for you is that you live in health, prosperity, joy, and absolute fulfillment in every area of your life. If even a small part of your life is lacking any part of these, He feels it. You must realize that your Lord loves you with a perfect love. He cherishes every breath you take.

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  • It is important to shave before beginning the treatment. If the external hair shaft is present the laser will burn it, in turn burning the skin. Depilatory creams can be used with patients who object to shaving. Anesthesia is usually not required; however, this depends on the patient and body area. When treating the upper lip some kind of anesthesia is recommended. There is a high risk for eye damage with the laser because the retina has a very high concentra- tion of melanin. For this reason treatment must not be carried out inside the bony area of the eye. It is important...

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  • This book presents current topics in genetics in the dermatologic field. Various skin disorders are inherited as mendelian inheritance. Genetic skin disorders are caused by mutations in the genes encoding proteins expressing in skin, skin appendages, melanocytes and immune-associated cells. Identification of genes and elucidation of function of the encoded proteins may provide novel strategies to overcome the disorders.

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  • Hydroxyurea was fi rst used as a treatment for cancer. It is a powerful medicine. But hydroxyurea is given at a much lower dose to children with sickle cell disease. No serious side effects have been seen in children with sickle cell disease. The dose used in the treatment of sickle cell disease does not cause the usual side effects seen with cancer treatment. It does not cause hair loss, vomiting, weakness, or loss of appetite. Many children with sickle cell disease have taken hydroxyurea for several years without problems. Hydroxyurea is very safe when given by medical specialists...

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  • Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is a self-limited disorder primarily of teenagers and young adults, although perhaps 10–20% of adults may continue to experience some form of the disorder. The permissive factor for the expression of the disease in adolescence is the increase in sebum production by sebaceous glands after puberty. Small cysts, called comedones , form in hair follicles due to blockage of the follicular orifice by retention of keratinous material and sebum.

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  • TRC (Aastrom) Autologous adult bone marrow cells for bone grafting LiverX2000 (Algenix) Extracorporeal liver assist device Encapsulated islet (Amcyte) proliferated Encapsulated islet cells Myocell (Bioheart) Encapsulated infarction cells for myocardial BioSeed-C, BioSeed-Oral Autologous tissue repair for bone and cartilage Bone (Biotissue Technologies) E-matrix (Encelle) Repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissue MarkII (Excorp) Extracorporeal liver assist device ICX-PRO, (Intercytex) ICX-TRC Wound repair and hair regeneration HuCNS-SC Inc) (Stem Cell c...

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  • Eggs deposited by female mites in the horny outer layer of the skin undergo three development stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) in about 17 to 21 days. The adult mites mechanically damage the skin of the host by making minute burrows. Allergic reaction is shown to mite saliva and faeces usually followed by secondary infection. Intense pruritis evolving small vesicles and inflammatory reaction of the skin characterize the beginning of the disease. Pruritis is severe and affected animals resort to extensive rubbing and scratching.

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  • Evoked Responses Electrocochleography measures the earliest evoked potentials generated in the cochlea and the auditory nerve. Receptor potentials recorded include the cochlear microphonic, generated by the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti, and the summating potential, generated by the inner hair cells in response to sound. The whole nerve action potential representing the composite firing of the firstorder neurons can also be recorded during electrocochleography.

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  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections S. aureus causes a variety of cutaneous infections. Common predisposing factors include skin disease, skin damage (e.g., insect bites, minor trauma), injections (e.g., in diabetes, injection drug use), and poor personal hygiene. These infections are characterized by the formation of pus-containing blisters, which often begin in hair follicles and spread to adjoining tissues. Folliculitis is a superficial infection that involves the hair follicle, with a central area of purulence (pus) surrounded by induration and erythema.

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  • Breast cancer also elicits concerns regarding a woman’s view of herself. Many treat- ments for cancer challenge a woman’s body image and sexuality (Oktay, 1998). “The systemic treatment of breast cancer with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy may also affect self-image, fertility, and libido—all important components of ‘femininity’” (p. 6). The combined effects of breast surgery, loss of hair, decreased libido, and early meno- pause constitute a serious threat to a woman’s self-image.

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  • The fact that there is a reciprocal relation between mental states and bodily conditions, acting both for good and ill, is nothing new in human experience. Even among the most crude and unobserving, traditions and incidents have given witness to this knowledge. For centuries stories of the hair turning white during the night on account of fright or sorrow, the cause and cure of diseases through emotional disturbances, and death, usually directly by apoplexy, caused by anger, grief, or joy, have been current and generally accepted.

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