In spoken dialogue systems, Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) provide a formal framework for making dialogue management decisions under uncertainty, but efﬁciency and interpretability considerations mean that most current statistical dialogue managers are only MDPs. These MDP systems encode uncertainty explicitly in a single state representation.
The Fuzzy Set Theory developed by L. Zadeh (Zadeh 1965) as a possible way to
handle uncertainty is particularly useful for the representation of vague expert
knowledge and processing uncertain or imprecise information. The Fuzzy Set
Theory is based on an extension of the classical meaning of the term "set" and
formulates specific logical and arithmetical operations for processing information
defined in the form of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules.
GIS has been coming of age. Millions of people use one GIS or another every day,
and with the advent of Web 2.0 we are promised GIS functionality on virtually every
desktop and web-enabled cellphone. GIS knowledge, once restricted to a few insiders
working with minicomputers that, as a category, don’t exist any more, has
proliferated and is bestowed on students at just about every university and increasingly
in community colleges and secondary schools.
Event detection is one of the required services in sensor network applications such as environmental
monitoring and object tracking. Composite event detection faces several challenges.The first challenge is
uncertainty caused by variety of factors, while the second one is heterogeneity of sensor nodes in sensing
capabilities. Finally, distributed detection,which is vital to facilitate uncovering composite events in large
scale sensor networks, is challenging.