With the evaluation method is scientific and has been tested as: methods speculation, rapid assessment methods, research methods analyze the physical environment (water, air), statistical methods,comparison methods, ... to make reliable assessments as a basis for consultation measures to reduce environmental pollution both during construction and operation of the project.
BEING CONSCIOUS of the need to preserve the human environment in general and the marine
environment in particular,
RECOGNIZING that deliberate, negligent or accidental release of oil and other harmful substances
from ships constitutes a serious source of pollution,
RECOGNIZING ALSO the importance of the International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954, as being the first multilateral instrument to be concluded with the
prime objective of protecting the environment, and appreciating the significant contribution which
that Convention has made in preserving the ...
Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and
reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus
causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide,
water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming,
most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there
are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.
Where specific products, books, or laboratories are
mentioned, no official U.S. government endorsement is
intended or implied.
Digital format users: No software was independently
developed for this project. Technical questions
related to software should be directed to the
manufacturer of whatever software is being used to read
the files. Adobe Acrobat PDF files are supplied to
allow use of this product with a wide variety of
software, hardware, and operating systems (DOS,
Windows, MAC, and UNIX)....
Many harms ﬂow across the ever-more porous sovereign borders of a globalizing
world. These harms expose weaknesses in the international legal regime built on
sovereignty of nation states. Using the Trail Smelter arbitration, one of the most cited
cases in international environmental law, this book explores the changing nature of
state responses to transboundary harm. Taking a critical approach, the book examines
the arbitration’s inﬂuence on international law generally and international environ-
mental law speciﬁcally.
Air pollution is one of the most serious
environmental threats to urban populations
(Cohen 2005). Exposures vary among and within
urban areas, but all people living in cities are
exposed, and many are harmed, by current levels
of pollutants in many large cities. Infants, young
children, seniors and people who have lung
and heart conditions are especially affected, but
even young, healthy adults are not immune to
harm from poor air quality.
It is important to note that NPDES permits are only required of so-called “point sources.”
Point sources tend to be larger industrial and commercial facilities and public treatment facilities.
Some large agricultural operations are considered point sources, but, by and large, runoff from
farms, roads, lawns, and most small pollution sources are not directly regulated. These
“nonpoint sources” are the subject of increased scrutiny, since most of the nation’s remaining
water quality problems are due to nonpoint pollution.
Third, not only are the coefficients measuring the effect of pollution larger for low SES children, but
these children are also exposed to considerably higher levels of pollution. As a result, they suffer greater
harm from pollution, and higher pollution levels explain roughly 4% of the gap in asthma rates.
But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort.
Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That
could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's
poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the
Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a
way to say Yes to replacement solutions.
Take the case of DDT.
Air pollution does not only damage the air; it also damages environments on Earth’s
surface and their inhabitants. Plants and animals are harmed by air pollution.
Sometimes it is the pollutants themselves that cause damage. Other times pollutants
combine and change the resources that plants and animals depend upon such as
water, soil, and nutrients.
The impacts of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious
consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural
Air pollution is a leading environmental threat
to the health of urban populations overall and
specifically to New York City residents. Clean
air laws and regulations have improved the air
quality in New York and most other large cities, but
several pollutants in the city’s air are at levels that
This report provides estimates of the toll of air
pollution on the health of New Yorkers. It focuses
on 2 common air pollutants—fine particulate
matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).
Breathing polluted air is unhealthy. For example, you might find it more difficult to
breathe, you might cough or your chest might feel tight.
Two main types of air pollution are ozone pollution and particle pollution.
The ozone we breathe at ground level is bad. But very high in the atmosphere (the
stratosphere) is a natural layer of ozone that is good because it helps protect us
from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. A rhyme that can help you remember this is
“Ozone: Good up high, bad nearby.
Outside the air regulatory setting, park, forest, and refuge managers may use data from air pollution related
lichen studies to aid management decisions, conduct NEPA analyses, and provide information to the public
about resource condition and impacts. To meet the requirements of the Wilderness Act, Organic Act, and
National Wildlife System Improvement Act, federal land managers often subscribe to what is known as the
Sulfur trioxide irritates the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. A concentration of 1
volume of SO3 in a million volumes of air (one part per million or 1 ppm) is enough to
cause coughing and choking. Sulfur trioxide dissolves in water to form sulfuric acid,
which is a strong acid capable of corroding or destroying many materials. Sulfur trioxide
can absorb moisture from the atmosphere to form very fine droplets of sulfuric acid.
Inhalation of these droplets can harm the respiratory system. Chronic exposure leads to a
much greater likelihood of suffering from bronchitis.
For millennia, advances in human progress have been tied to our ability to
protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the wastes we produce—ranging
from human waste to the organic and inorganic by-products of everyday living.
Across the world, cultures learned to bury their dead away from their homes and
to burn their waste or make certain that it was carried away by streams and rivers
flowing downstream from their homes. Those cultures that learned this most effectively
thrived. When the industrial revolution took place in the nineteenth century,
rivers again enabled progress.
Inorganic mercury is toxic when humans or
wildlife are exposed to high levels for a short peri-
od of time. Organic methylmercury has a greater
tendency to accumulate in the body over time,
eventually causing harm, even in small amounts.
Methylmercury has the three properties that make
substances particularly harmful to humans and
other organisms — it persists, it bioaccumulates,
and it is toxic to most life forms. The health effects
of mercury are described in more detail in the next
chapter of this primer.
Like outdoor air , indoor air contains a complex mixture of pollutants (chemical substances,
allergens and microbes) from different sources that changes with time.
Findings on the health effects of single air pollutants cannot necessarily be extended to
mixtures. Indeed, different chemicals may interact with each other and cause more (or
less) harmful effects than the sum of the effects caused by each chemical separately. Very
little is known about the combined effects of indoor air pollutants.
The presentation "Biomass pollution basics" addresses
the basics of biomass burning and introduces participants
to the concept of incomplete combustion, the wide range of
pollutants emitted from wood fires and stoves and typical
pollutant concentrations. Two pollutants are of primary
interest for both health effects and IAP monitoring:
particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Smaller particles (PM2.5 and PM1) are likely to be most
harmful, as they penetrate deep into the human lung. Larger
particles are more likely to get 'filtered' by the upper
If the soil becomes saturated, oxygen may become
scarce and in anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria may
convert the nitrate to nitrogen gases (NO, N2O, and N2).
Nitrogen converted to these gases becomes unavailable for
plant uptake or for surface water contamination.
Additionally, saturated soil during the growing season is
harmful to many crops like maize that cannot tolerate low
oxygen concentrations in the root zone for more than a few
The Agency’s FY 2013 budget request supports the Administration’s commitment to ensure that
all Americans are protected from significant risks to human health and protect the environment
where they live, learn and work. The EPA’s work touches on the lives of every single American,
every single day as we protect the environment for our children, but also for our children’s
children. The mission, day in and day out, is to protect the health of the American people by
keeping pollution out of the air we breathe, toxins out of the water we drink and swim in, and