Despite attempts to secure harrnonisation of accounting practice, significant variations in
accounting rules and practice continue to arise in European countries, variations which give
rise to compliance costs for multinational companies.
Firstly, this paper considers the relevance of international accounting harmonisation for
European business. It then proceeds to examine accounting regulation in three countries:
Spain, Sweden and Austria, highlighting the key regulatory issues of the 'true and fair' view
requirement and the link between taxation and accounting.
The previous chapters have concentrated on the two leading second generation (2G) cellular systems: GSM and IS-95. These systems are deployed in many parts of the world and will continue to operate and evolve during the next decade as third generation (3G) systems are rolled out. We may expect that the new 3G systems will be harmonised with their evolved 2G counterparts, and that slowly 2G spectra will be refarmed to provide extra 3G spectra. No 3G systems are currently deployed, although trials are in progress. As a consequence, this chapter, which deals with systems that are about to be...
The Parties to this Agreement, REAFFIRMING the commitment to the aims and purposes of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as set forth in the Bangkok Declaration of 8 August 1967, in particular to promote regional co-operation in Southeast Asia in the spirit of equality and partnership and thereby contribute towards peace, progress and prosperity in the region, RECALLING the Kuala Lumpur Accord on Environment and Development which was adopted by the ASEAN Ministers of Environment on 19 June 1990 which calls for, inter alia, efforts leading towards the harmonisation of transbo...
Accounting Theory 6e is the new edition of this widely respected accounting theory textbook. The new edition has been updated in accordance with the new IASB Framework and addresses the differences in reported information as a consequence of international harmonisation of accounting standards and accounting choices. Throughout this edition, new developments in accounting theory are supported with links to professional experiences, both locally and internationally.
This book contains most of the papers presented at the Eco-Architecture 2010
conference, which was the third edition of the International Conference on
Harmonisation between Architecture and Nature. Previous editions were held in
the New Forest, UK (2006) and the Algarve, Portugal (2008) and demonstrated the
importance of a forum like this to discuss the characteristics and challenges of such
Eco-Architecture implies a new approach to the design process intended to
harmonise its products with nature.
From Analogue Car Telephone to Digital Pocket Phone
CEPT took a very much forward looking decision when it decided to create, as early as 1982, the GSM Group with the mandate to deﬁne a second generation harmonised cellular system in Europe. At that time, the true market potential for mobile systems was not known. Also many technologies, which became key to the GSM radio design, were just emerging. This is true particularly of cellular networking, digital signal processing and real-time computing...
Three options emerged for harmonising the scope of institutions that are deemed to provide
sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation and capital requirements to fulfil the
task of being a depositary. The impact assessment concludes that both credit institutions and
regulated investment firms provide sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation,
capital requirements and effective supervision to act as UCITS depositaries. Other institutions
(such as, e.g.
The Rome ‘Declaration on Harmonisation’ of
February 2003, states that:
‘We in the donor community have been concerned with the growing
evidence that, over time, the totality and wide variety of donor
requirements for preparing, delivering and monitoring development
assistance are generating unproductive transaction costs for, and
drawing down the limited capacities of, partner countries’ and that
‘donor practices do not always fit well with national development
The EC will therefore play its part in promoting
harmonisation of policies and practices.
The Mandate by CEPT and the First Action Plan of 1982
The mandate given to the Technical Committee GSM by CEPT in mid-1982 requested the ‘‘harmonisation of a public mobile communication system in the 900 MHz band’’. 2 This decision took place during the very hot promotion phase for ISDN. Therefore it is remarkable to note that GSM was not deﬁned as a ‘‘mobile ISDN’’. Instead the decision leaves the nature of the GSM open, but requests the study of the interconnection with ISDN. ...
The standards in this report harmonise and, where appropriate, strengthen the
existing international standards for payment systems (PS) that are systemically important,
central securities depositories (CSDs), securities settlement systems (SSSs), and central
counterparties (CCPs). The revised standards also incorporate additional guidance for over-
the-counter (OTC) derivatives CCPs and trade repositories (TRs).
Several things prompted the idea for this book in Autumn 2006. First, it was
15 years since the EU had started harmonising copyright law. If we include the
Community courts case law, harmonisation – albeit indirect – dates back to
1971 with Deutsche Grammophon1 the first decision in the field of copyright
which, in a groundbreaking way not only decided that copyright was within
the competence of the Community but also that in the context of the free
movement of goods and services, an end should be put to protectionism by
creating the concept of European exhaustion.
In the EU, investment funds can be broadly categorised as UCITS (undertakings for collective
investment in transferable securities) and non-UCITS (or non-harmonised) funds.
funds are those that comply with harmonised rules as laid down in the UCITS Directive
(85/611/EEC) and are authorised for sale to the retail market.
Non-harmonised funds (hereafter referred to collectively as alternative investment funds, or
AIF) do not form a homogenous class of investment fund.
AIF invest in a wide variety of
asset types and employ very different investment strategies.
This paper uses interest rate data that cover a longer period and that are based on more harmonised
principles than those used by previous pass-through studies for the euro area. We find that stronger
competition implies significantly lower interest rate spreads for most loan market products, as we
In February 2010, the CPSS and the Technical Committee of IOSCO launched a
comprehensive review of the three existing sets of standards for FMIs – the CPSIPS, RSSS,
and RCCP – in support of the FSB’s broader efforts to strengthen core financial
infrastructures and markets by ensuring that gaps in international standards are identified
The CPSS and the Technical Committee of IOSCO also identified the
review as an opportunity to harmonise and, where appropriate, strengthen the three sets of
New lighting quality standards Within the framework of European harmonisation, new standards are being developed to replace national ones. Against the backdrop of the revision and reformulation of requirements that this entails, professionals have been debating a new extended concept of quality. The extended concept of lighting quality The practice of defining lighting quality on the basis of certain quality features has stood the test of time.
In the event that the OFT proposes to include any sensitive commercial or
personal information in a document that will be published it will, save in
exceptional circumstances, contact the relevant persons prior to publication to
give them the opportunity to explain why disclosure would cause significant
harm and to request excision (or aggregation or generalisation) of any material
that will still be sensitive at the time of publication.
Over the past 30 years, environmental policies and related reporting activities adopted by OECD countries have
steadily evolved. This evolution has been largely driven by increased public awareness of environmental issues, their
international aspects and their linkages with economic and social issues. Initially the demand for environmental
information was closely related to the definition and implementation of environmental policies and their effects on the
state of the environment.
From the moment I got in contact with the law as a student, I have been try-
ing to find the crosslinks between the various areas of law as well as rela-
tionships between certain areas of law and matters of public policy and
economics. Unfair competition law, as a separate area of law, has proved to
be a particularly attractive area of law in light of the above.
To the extent that the relevant laws or securities regulation already address
corporate governance of listed companies, the role of exchange regulation can
therefore only be complementary. For instance, rules on prospectus issuance
follow largely from national securities law, and international harmonisation
initiatives (notably the EU Prospectus Directive) may have further limited the
scope of standards setting by exchanges. Even in jurisdictions where exchanges
are empowered to issue regulations, they may be subject to an approval by
another regulatory authority, e.g.
Finally, stock exchange alliances and increasing collaboration is acting to
improve governance standards globally. Through exchange alliances and
initiatives to attract dual listings, exchanges are also helping to spread good
governance standards globally. For instance, NASDAQ OMX has been active in
providing counselling to exchanges in Eastern Europe and the Middle East on
how to improve transparency and disclosure in their local market though sharing
its experiences in this area.