Volume 2 of the four-volume The Facts On File
Encyclopedia of Health and Medicine presents the
body systems that nourish, cleanse, and protect
the body. These are the systems of cells and fluids
and the structures that transport them throughout
the body. Though distinct in their functions and
purposes, these systems overlap and integrate
with one another in inseparable ways.
The Cardiovascular System
Volume 2 opens with “The Cardiovascular System,”
the structures and functions that carry
blood throughout the body.
Tham khảo tài liệu 'immunosuppression – role in health and diseases edited by suman kapur and maristela barbosa portela', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
(BQ) Part 1 book "Professional english in use medicine" presents the following contents: Basic (Health and illness, parts of the body, functions of the body), medical and paramedical, education and training, systems, dieases and symptoms.
Optics and photonics are technical enablers for many areas of the economy, and dramatic
technical advances have had a major impact on daily life. For example, in the last decade,
advances in optical fiber communications have permitted a nearly 100-fold increase in the
amount of information that can be transmitted from place to place, enabling a societytransforming
Internet to thrive. As noted in the introduction to Charles Kao’s 2009 Nobel Prize
lecture on his work in optical fiber communications, “the work has fundamentally transformed
the way we live our daily lives.
The overall theme was to identify obstacles standing between men and their participation in
reproductive health and to examine strategies for overcoming these obstacles. Another cen-
tral theme was to encourage men’s participation in reproductive health by building on men’s
decision-making traditions in French-speaking African countries.
As with all medical practice in the United States, safety in reproductive
medicine is assured by a combination of state and federal government
regulation and professional self-regulation that includes facility accreditation
and practitioner certification. On the state level, there is a strict physician
licensure system. On the federal level, several agencies enforce standards
and practices designed to protect public health and safety. Several national
groups accredit laboratories as well.
The rise of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) – a whole array
of practices, products and approaches to health and illness1 – can certainly no
longer be characterised as cultural fad or fashion. Changes in the use of titles
(from ‘unscientific’ and ‘marginal’ to ‘complementary’ and ‘integrative’)
reflect a more substantive relocation and transformation of many of these
medicines from the fringe to the mainstream of both community and professional
health-care discourse and practice (Tovey et al. 2004).
The sequencing of the human genome has generated excitement about
the potential of genomic innovations to improve medical care, preventive and
community health services, and public health. Until fairly recently, genetic
information was used primarily in the diagnosis of relatively rare genetic diseases,
such as cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s Disease, but a transformation
in the use of genetic and genomic information is under way.
Genetic markers of increased risk for such chronic diseases as diabetes
and coronary artery disease have been identified.
The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is regulated at several
levels, including enzyme activation, inhibition, complex formation and
compartmentalization. Regulation at the transcriptional level is also impor-tant, although this is not a subject of the present minireview.
The efforts of public health agencies at the federal, state, and
local levels to prepare for what could happen in the future are
largely invisible until there is an emerging threat, such as the
recent SARS outbreak, or a dramatic event, such as the
anthrax attacks of 2001. Through this effort, the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) intends to
provide the best available and most essential up-to-date
health-related facts and background information that will be
needed in the event of a terrorist attack or public health
All optical phenomena experience interference effects at some level. Even light
from an incandescent light bulb has partial coherence that can lead to constructive
or destructive interference when multiple light paths are combined at a detector.
The ubiquitous nature of interference underlies many phenomena and techniques in
biological optics. This chapter lays the foundation for interferometry applied to
biology and medicine.
Epidemiology 101 should use examples not limited to traditional health and medicine, again as
recommended by LEAP learning outcomes and principles of excellence. Cause and effect might
be illustrated by examples from biology or economics. Quantitative decision-making may use
examples ranging from forensics to environmental monitoring. The specific examples are less
important than the emphasis on illustrations reinforcing the broad applicability of epidemiology
from basic science to public policy....
The sequencing of the human genome together with the development and implementation of new
high throughput technologies (so called “omics”) are enhancing our knowledge on human health
and disease and have already, and will continue, to provide a sound foundation for personalised
In developing countries, a mother’s death in
childbirth means that her newborn will almost
certainly die and that her older children are more
likely to suffer from disease.Moreover, when
mothers are malnourished, ill, or receive inade-
quate care, their newborns face a higher risk of
disease and premature death.
9 Almost one-quar-
ter of newborns in developing countries are born
low birth weight, largely due to their mothers’
poor health and nutritional status, which results
in increased vulnerability to infection and a high-
er risk of developmental problems.
A big part of my role as a physician is educating
my patients about their health. I take as much
time as each person needs to explain prevention
measures, test results, and treatment options. I
encourage questions. But in the moment, sitting
there in my office, most people do not yet know
what to ask me. By the time questions flood
their thoughts, they may be back at work or at
The study of food and nutrition covers many disciplines including agriculture, biology, physics, chemistry, food technology, nutrition, and medicine. As research of the links between food and health continues to expand, it is more important than ever that specialists in such areas as food processing and nutrition be familiar with often unfamiliar terminology that differing disciplines use.