This volume has a simple aim: to provide researchers and analysts with a step-bystep
practical guide to the measurement of a variety of aspects of health equity.
Each chapter includes worked examples and computer code. We hope that these
guides, and the easy-to-implement computer routines contained in them, will stimulate
yet more analysis in the fi eld of health equity, especially in developing countries.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3)
Two key policy goals in the health sector are equity and financial protection. New methods, data and powerful computers have led to a surge of interest in quantitative analysis that permits monitoring progress toward these objectives, and comparisons across countries. ADePT is a new computer program that streamlines and automates such work, ensuring that results are genuinely comparable and allowing them to be produced with a minimum of programming skills.
Midwives are autonomous professionals whose unique
and specialist contribution affects the whole population:
each of us at the time of birth, the great majority of people
who become parents and the half of these who become
mothers. Women and their families expect a service that
provides clear communication and explanations, effective
teamwork, a safe care environment and continuity of care.
The midwife’s role is to ensure that these expectations are
understood and met.
As nations seek to strengthen their health systems, they are increasingly looking to primary health care (PHC) to provide a clear and comprehensive sense of direction. The World Health Report 2008 analyzes how primary health care reforms, that embody the principles of universal access, equity and social justice, are an essential
Despite the success of the Men C programme the youngest members of society continue to
bear a disproportionate burden in terms of incidence of, and mortality from, IMD. The recorded
case fatality rate (CFR) for meningococcal disease varies between 2.6-10% each year (see table
accompanying Figure 1), similar to the 5.6% observed in England and Wales.
West Collaborative Health Profile aim is to provide the overall needs assessment specific
to this collaborative and to inform the implementation of the Primary Care Strategy. It
supplements Haringey’s Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) 2012.
The west collaborative covers a vibrant area of an older population that is geographically
most varied, encompassing some of the wealthiest areas in the country and some areas
which are amongst 20% most deprived in the country. It is the biggest of the four
collaboratives with the highest number of population registered with GPs (88,405).
As we note in our original report (and reiterate above), several of the primary instruments used to measure health literacy are highly correlated with general measures of literacy applied in the health care setting.21 This suggests that health literacy and literacy measures are strongly related. It has additionally raised questions about what terminology to apply to measures in the field.48
In this review, in distinction to our earlier report, we focus on “health literacy” rather than “literacy.” We made this decision for several reasons.
Various health, education, and youth organisations and adolescence researchers have
defined and categorised key skills in different ways. Despite these differences, experts
and practitioners agree that the term “life skills” typically includes the skills listed in the
preceding definition. To these we have added advocacy skills, because they are important
in personal and collective efforts to make a strong case for behaviours and conditions that
are conducive to health. (For a case study on advocacy skills, see Section 2.2).
The population health approach achieves its goal of improving the health status of the entire population by
considering health determinants and strategies to reduce inequalities in health status between groups. (110)
As a result, the Child Health program requires public health practitioners to work with others to address the
broader determinants of health and reduce resulting health inequities. (1)
Practical guidance for this work is addressed in Steps to Equity: Ideas and Strategies for Health Equity in
Starting in the spring of 2009, a fast recovery in global equities and a rise
in house values in many economies (the euro area and Japan are exceptions)
were accompanied by a reduction in corporate bond spreads and other risk
premia (Graphs II.1 and III.2, top panels), though some risk measures have
meanwhile risen again in the context of the Greek sovereign debt crisis.
Reported VaR figures show that risk as measured by potential losses from
banks’ trading positions remains high (Graph III.2, bottom left-hand panel).
World Health Statistics 2006 presents the most recent statistics since 1997 of 50 health indicators for
WHO’s 192 Member States. This second edition of World Health Statistics includes an expanded set of
statistics, with a particular focus on equity between and within countries. It also introduces a section with
10 highlights in global health statistics for the past year.
World Health Statistics 2006 has been collated from publications and databases of WHO’s technical programmes
and regional offices.
Evaluating mutual fund performance is a topic of long-standing interest in the academic
literature, but few if any studies have addressed the selection of an optimal portfolio of funds.
Instead of using the historical data to estimate performance measures or produce fund rank-
ings, this study uses the data to explore the mutual-fund investment decision.
Distance-based pricing can help achieve equity objectives. Since annual vehicle mileage
tends to increase with income, fixed-price insurance causes lower-income motorists to
subsidize the insurance costs of higher-income motorists within their rate class.
Distance-based insurance pricing provides overall savings to lower-income motorists,
and would allow some low-income households to own a vehicle for basic mobility that
they cannot currently afford.
Distance-based pricing lets motorists save money by reducing mileage, an option that is
The past three decades have witnessed a steadily
increasing awareness of the need to empower women
through measures to increase social, economic and
political equity, and broader access to fundamental
human rights, improvements in nutrition, basic health
and education. Along with awareness of the
subordinate status of women has come the concept of
gender as an overarching socio-cultural variable, seen
in relation to other factors, such as race, class, age and
We know the interventions that can save most women’s lives. If every
woman had access to essential maternal care, 74% of maternal deaths could
be prevented4. If all women had access to self–controlled means of HIV/
AIDS protection and were in a position within society to use these methods,
millions of HIV/AIDS deaths could be prevented. Thus, we do not so much
need new technology, as we need to ensure universal access, utilization and equity.
But ensuring universal access, utilization and equity means that our health
services cannot continue to function as “business as usual.
Replicability requires the consideration of sustainable ways by which
services can be provided to unserved populations across a particular coun-
try. To provide a sustainable level of service will, in some cases, require
significant reforms: financial reforms at the sector level, reforms of bud-
getary systems, reforms in subsidy levels, reforms of user charges, and
so on. This is a tough menu of reforms to be carried out by social funds;
indeed, social funds cannot undertake reforms of this extent.
Home Equity Financing leverages the equity you’ve established in your primary residence to
purchase an investment property. You may borrow up to 100% of your current home’s unused
equity. Like getting a new mortgage, home equity financing may be tax deductible.
Renovation Financing is specially designed to provide a single loan that covers both the purchase
price of a less-than-perfect property and the costs of renovating it. The loan amount is based on
the estimated increased value of your property after your planned improvements are made.
Investors mentioned that better tax treatment for REITs in Malaysia (tax exemption at
both fund and investor levels) will enhance overall return, although the new tax-exemption at
fund level is found to be encouraging.
REIT corporations advised that their properties injected into REITs are carefully
selected, high yielding properties in prime location. This study found that as all REIT
corporations intend to hold 20 – 30% equity in their REITs, it is in their primary interest that
their REITs continue to grow and provide attractive returns.