Health infrastructure

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  • Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions—and the devastation they inflict—are all too familiar to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In the last decade, natural disasters have caused more than 45,000 deaths in the region, left 40 million injured or in need of assistance, and carried a price tag—in direct damage alone—of more than US$20 billion.1 The health sector has proven particularly vulnerable to such havoc.

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  • If you already have health problems that are likely to mean you will need long-term care (for example, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease), you probably won’t be able to buy a policy. Insurance companies have medical underwriting standards to keep the cost of long-term care insurance affordable. Without such standards, most people would not buy coverage until they needed long-term care services. Some states have a regulation requiring the insurance company and the agent to go through a worksheet with you to decide if long-term care insurance is right for you.

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  • The idea of establishing infrastructure banks to help finance needed investment is not new to the United States. As of 2010, 32 states and Puerto Rico already had state infrastructure banks in operation, using them to enter into more than 700 loan agreements worth $6.5 billion. 24 A handful of banks were established in the 1990s as part of a limited federal pilot program, which was expanded in 2005 to include all states.

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  • Safe and effective medical countermeasures, including vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics, are critical for responding to large-scale public health emergencies. Such situations, be they natural (e.g., pandemic influenza) or man-made (e.g., terrorism), have the potential to rapidly overwhelm public health and medical systems. America’s national security depends on having appropriately licensed chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear medical countermeasures in its arsenal of defenses.

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  • Module 8: Configuring network access protection. Network Access Protection (NAP) ensures compliance with specific health policies for systems accessing the network. NAP assists administrators in achieving and maintaining a specific health policy. This module provides information about how NAP works, and how to configure, monitor, and troubleshoot NAP.

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  • The global political community has also made progress, especially in addressing the gravity of sexual violence in armed conflict. The United Nations Security Council Resolu- tions 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889 on Women, Peace and Security affirm the unique needs, perspectives and contributions of women and girls in conflict settings.

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  • Water quality is one of the key factors affecting the environmental health of the Mekong river system. As the livelihoods of most of the 60 million people who live in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) wholly or partly depend on aquatic resources, the environmental health of the river is a major concern to the governments of the countries in the basin. In 1985, the Mekong River Commission (MRC) established the Water Quality Monitoring Network (WQMN) to provide an ongoing record of the water quality of the river, its major tributaries, and the Mekong Delta.

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  • Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a basic necessity. However, such access is highly variable around the world and in particular in Africa, Asia and South America. Much progress still remains to be made in infrastructure improvements and poverty reduction. A recent World Bank report, for example, noted that more than 100 million people in the Latin American region alone lack access to potable water and adequate sanitation systems. Compounding the issue of water availability is contamination of water supplies and the lack of wastewater treatment facilities.

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  • Food safety and foodborne diseases are topics of global concern. Food safety encompasses many areas, including pesticide and antibiotic residues, the presence of mycotoxins and foodborne pathogens, and all aspects of food production and preparation. Many issues associated with these topics are common to all countries. Decisions must be made by each nation to determine priority areas that should be addressed to ensure the health of its citizens.

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  • In response to such changes we need a multifaceted, multi-agency approach based on strengthening individuals, families and communities, while at the same time improving the infrastructure and access to services. Midwives and midwifery services have a particular part to play in this. We could go a long way to achieving improvements in health and social outcomes by giving more people, particularly women and children, better life chances8.

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  • Developing Asia achieved impressive economic growth in the last decade and had remarkable success in lifting large numbers of people in the region out of poverty. At the same time, recent evidence suggests that in many growing economies of developing Asia, rising income disparities are widening the gap between the rich and the poor.

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  • The insurance sector is an infrastructural pillar of the financial services sector and the economy as a whole. It plays a key role in economic development. Several empirical studies suggest a strong correlation between the development of financial intermediaries and economic growth. According to Patrick (1966) 3 there are two, possibly coexisting, relationships between the financial sector and economic growth.

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  • Anomalous climatic outcomes such as higher temperatures, intense rainfall and flood, frequent and severe droughts are now at the new level. Without appropriate adaptation measures, climate change is bound to exacerbate vulnerability of society, place food security and human health at risk, threaten the lives of growing urban population and impede the goal of attaining sustainable development. The human and social dimensions of climate change, including climate policy, are essential parts of our response to the many challenges emanating from climate change....

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  • A range of factors contributed to this situation, such as the lack of access to basic health facilities - only 40% of the population is in the coverage areas of basic health facilities, and only 9% of rural households surveyed in 2003 reported a health facility in their village;1 lack of female staff at the existing facilities particularly in rural areas; marked rural-urban disparities in availability of health facilities; and lack of infrastructure (roads and transport) and security that reduce mobility and access.

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  • These interventions call for a series of actions, including creation of an appropriate institutional framework to support women's training, market linkages, access to credit and child care facilities, schooling infrastructure including incentives designed to reduce the drop out rate for girls, and maternal health care facilities to be spread out into remote rural areas. Given the current state of data in and about Afghanistan and the limited experience with a variety of actions, it is not possible to quantify precisely the impact of these actions.

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  • Buses and other fleet vehicles are the perfect avenue to introduce fuel cell power plants into the marketplace. Because the vehicles return to a central station each night, they can fill up with hydrogen without the need for an extended hydrogen infrastructure. We are pleased with how our fuel cell power system has performed during revenue service in buses in California, Connecticut, and Belgium. Our customers have been impressed with the performance and fuel efficiency of the power plants, and passengers enjoy the comfortable, quiet, and odor-free ride of the bus.

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  • It is important to note that the requirements for sustainability condi- tions vary by subsection because they are inherently different. In par- ticular, these requirements to create sustainability may be more difficult to achieve in practice in water and sanitation, in drainage, and in the transportation subprojects than they are in building schools or clinics.

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  • As one of the key pillars of the financial services sector the insurance sector is a central element of the trade and development matrix. As both an infrastructural and commercial service, a well-functioning insurance sector plays a crucial role in economic development not just at a macro economic level but also in terms of the activities of individuals and businesses. The world insurance market is dominated by industrialized countries which in 2004 generated about 88 per cent of world life insurance premiums and accounted for 90 per cent of the world non-life market.

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  • A comparative analysis of service statistics found that the utilization of services from health facilities doubled in Site A and increased ten-fold in Site B, compared to the change in utilization in Site C. Again, comparing the two intervention sites, Site B experienced six times greater utilization of services than Site A. Thus, for most key indicators, Strategy II produced greater improvements than did Strategy I. On the basis of study findings, the following recommendations are made.

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  • Veisten et al. Health Economics Review 2011, 1:3 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/3 RESEARCH Open Access Cycling and walking for transport: Estimating net health effects from comparison of different transport mode users’ self-reported physical activity Knut Veisten*, Stefan Flügel, Farideh Ramjerdi and Harald Minken Abstract Background: There is comprehensive evidence of the positive health effects of physical activity, and transport authorities can enable this by developing infrastructure for cycling and walking.

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