A silent killer maneuvers just below the surface of almost all the
health issues that will lead to death and disease in the 21st century.
The U.S. population faces well-recognized health risks, including
chronic diseases, environmental degradation, and natural and manmade
disasters, but the silent killer is less diagnosed and remains
essentially untreated. The silent killer is low health literacy: the
reality that almost half of adults in the United States, over 90 million
people, struggle to find, understand, and correctly use health
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The relationship of oral health literacy with oral health-related quality of life in a multi-racial sample of low-income female caregivers
Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa học đề tài : The relationship of oral health literacy with oral health-related quality of life in a multi-racial sample of low-income female caregivers
or insufficient. This is attributable, in large part, to differences in the types of interventions and, subsequently, in the mix of results. Looking closely within categories of design features, however, the following specific design features seemed to improve comprehension for low-health-literacy populations in one or a few studies: (1) presenting essential information by itself (i.e., information on hospital death rates without other distracting information, such as information on consumer satisfaction); (2) presenting essential information first (i.e.
Overall, the strength of evidence for specific design features in these interventions was low or insufficient. This is attributable, in large part, to differences in the types of interventions and, subsequently, in the mix of results. Looking closely within categories of design features, however, the following specific design features seemed to improve comprehension for low-health-literacy populations in one or a few studies: (1) presenting essential information by itself (i.e.
Relatively healthy older people, particularly those in the 60 to 70 age range, are likely to need services
similar to other adult health center populations. They may face challenges similar to their younger
counterparts; language barriers, limited health literacy, or cultural factors may impact health care access.
Yet for the older-old, these familiar challenges are compounded by additional barriers to optimal care and
quality of life. The disabled of any age often need supportive services to remain as healthy as possible and
in the community.
We anticipate that this update will continue to raise awareness among clinicians and policymakers alike that low health literacy has a substantial impact on the use of health care services and health outcomes; it also hints at the role of health literacy in disparities in utilization or outcomes among groups defined by various sociodemographic characteristics. However, little remains known about the direct effect of lower health literacy on the costs of health care. Addressing the burden of low health literacy that we have identified warrants the attention of many stakeholders.
Health literacy, as defined by Ratzan and Parker2 and adopted by Healthy People 20102,3 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in their 2004 report Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion4 is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” The concept of health literacy represents a constellation of skills necessary to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information.
Health disparities in the United States correlating with race, ethnicity, language, economic
status and other demographic factors have been documented by numerous researchers.
According to the CDC, populations experiencing health disparities are growing as U.S.
demographics change. The future of American health depends on understanding, addressing,
reducing, and eliminating these disparities.
As we note in our original report (and reiterate above), several of the primary instruments used to measure health literacy are highly correlated with general measures of literacy applied in the health care setting.21 This suggests that health literacy and literacy measures are strongly related. It has additionally raised questions about what terminology to apply to measures in the field.48
In this review, in distinction to our earlier report, we focus on “health literacy” rather than “literacy.” We made this decision for several reasons.
In this chapter, we document the procedures used by the RTI International−University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI−UNC EPC) to develop this comprehensive evidence report Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes, an update to our 2004 systematic review Literacy and Health Outcomes. The key questions (KQ s) for this update review are the same as those in the original review, with the exception that literacy has been replaced by the broader term health literacy.
This book is concerned with Personal, Social and Health Education
practice in primary and secondary schools. Developing effective practice
in current contexts is challenging for practitioners. Although the
revised English National Curriculum (Curriculum 2000) gives a greater
and more explicit place to PSHE and Citizenship, for school leaders and
classroom teachers this can seem like yet another thing to add to their
long list of jobs to be done and expectations to be met.
Research has revealed the crucial importance of involving the education sector
in the process of agreeing to the potential benefits, as the two sectors have differ-
ent criteria and values in relation to effectiveness and impact.
It is vital that the education sector be convinced of the need to develop a policy
on school health promotion. Such policy may be developed in isolation or, more
likely, with support from the health sector or other partners.
As health education and life skills have evolved during the past decade, there is growing
recognition of and evidence for the role of psychosocial and interpersonal skills in the
development of young people, from their earliest years through childhood, adolescence,
and into young adulthood. These skills have an effect on the ability of young people to
protect themselves from health threats, build competencies to adopt positive behaviours,
and foster healthy relationships.
School setting: Skills-based health education and life skills can and have been incorporated
in many settings and for a wide range of target groups. In this document, we focus on
school-based programmes. Education reform ensures a place for skills-based health
education in the curriculum and in various extra-curricular efforts. Special programmes for
students and parents, peer education and counselling programmes, and school/community
programmes offer ways for students to apply and practise what they learn.
Medical rehabilitation is underfunded and short-staffed, and access to
services is subject to substantial regional disparities. Long-term care is
provided by both the health and the social sectors. Local governments are
responsible for providing social care, which takes the form of cash and in-kind
benefits provided mostly to impoverished individuals and those with disabilities.
Palliative care is still in its infancy. The importance of informal carers, who in
some cases are eligible for financial assistance, has been recognized.
The adult literacy rate in 2004 was 49.6% with 55.5% for males and
43.4% for females (BBS 2004). Although the female/male ratio in primary
school was 100:115, in secondary schools and universities this gap
increased to 100:131 and 100:322 respectively (Ministry of Education
2002). In addition to gender inequalities, inequalities also exist by
geographical areas. Only 36% of the rural women are literate, compared
to 60% of urban women.
However, this situation is rapidly changing in recent years.