People who have higher levels of hostility and anger are at greater risk for heart disease
and atherosclerosis. This is the main pattern of findings from the many investigations
into the relationship between personality and cardiovascular diseases over the past 50–
60 years. However, that general conclusion is not as straightforward as it seems.
The World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund in collaboration with the
Key Centre for Women’s Health in Society, in the School of Population Health at the University of
Melbourne, Australia are pleased to present this joint publication of available evidence on the intricate
relationship between women’s mental and reproductive health. The review comprises the most recent
information on the ways in which mental health concerns intersect with women’s reproductive health.
Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has
been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education,
and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization
is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health
determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation,
consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently
by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.
When a woman is healthy, she has the energy and strength to
do her daily work, to fulfill the many roles she has in her family
and community, and to build satisfying relationships with others.
In other words, a woman’s health affects every area of her life.
Yet for many years, ‘women’s health care’ has meant little more
than maternal health services such as care during pregnancy and
bir th. These services are necessary, but they address women’s
needs only as mothers.
Children and adolescents with good mental health are able to achieve and maintain
optimal psychological and social functioning and well-being. They have a sense of
identity and self-worth, sound family and peer relationships, an ability to be productive
and to learn, and a capacity to tackle developmental challenges and use cultural
resources to maximize growth. Moreover, the good mental health of children and
adolescents is crucial for their active social and economic participation.
The Wisconsin Family Health Survey (FHS) collects information about health insurance coverage, health
status, health problems and use of health care services among Wisconsin residents. This survey began in
1989 and has been conducted annually since then. This report is based on responses collected in 2008,
the same year that the BadgerCare Plus health insurance program was implemented (February 2008).
The survey results presented in this report are representative of Wisconsin household residents, who
constitute approximately 97 percent of all persons residing in the state.
Both Planned Parenthood and the alternative sites we interviewed typically had
relationships with other local health care providers. Thus, changes that affect one set of clinics,
like Planned Parenthood, may have repercussions for other providers in the communities. Clinics
often refer patients for care at other facilities if they cannot provide the services themselves. For
example, if a woman is diagnosed with diabetes in a WHP exam at a family planning clinic, she
would be referred to a community health center or public primary care clinic for further follow-
up and care.
Each mental health professional’s life offers a personal opportunity to diminish the sense of
bafflement about how health, suffering, and recovery processes work. Over decades of
work in a mental health field, many of us develop the sense that we better understand
some aspects of psychology and psychopathology. Those who devote themselves to one
subject in a scholarly research fashion seem to have a slightly greater potential to remove
some of the mystery for themselves and others in a particular subject area.
Women’s health is inextricably linked to the context in
which they live their lives. Only within the past few
decades have researchers and clinicians acknowledged
the importance of women’s lived experiences for their
well-being. The feminist movement of the 1960s and
1970s prompted critical analysis of women’s health and
its relationship to society, and of women’s health care
Initially there were cooperation problems with line ministries. Emer-
gency funds wanted to disburse fast, and sustainability was not of con-
cern to social funds: they just constructed projects. After a while, schools
had no students and health posts had no nurses. So now there is more
coordination with government entities, either formal or informal. The
Chile fund negotiates its budget with the ministry of finance and ex-
ecutes programs with line ministries.
In the early theoretical models, the level of stress of
caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder
abuse with care of an elderly relative (36, 37).
While the popular image of abuse depicts a
dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver,
there is growing evidence that neither of these
factors properly accounts for cases of abuse.
Although researchers do not deny the component
of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider
context in which the quality of the overall
relationship is a causal factor (30, 34, 38).
To what extent is poor mental health and low educational at-
tainment/ drop-out linked? Clearly the association can operate in
both directions. From a policy perspective, one would like to know
the causal inﬂuence of poor mental health on these outcomes. This
is notoriously diﬃcult to establish and most research addresses the
association rather than the causal impact.
The study of psychological processes in physical activity and health has grown
considerably in recent years. “Exercise psychologists” study the psychological antecedents
of physical activity and use their theoretical perspectives to inform the design and implementation
of interventions to change sedentary lifestyles. In addition, involvement in
physical activity can have important psychological benefits. Although we have known
this for a very long time, it is only relatively recently that a systematic approach has been
adopted to the accumulation of evidence.
Professional ethics is now acknowledged as a field of study in its own
right. Much of its recent development has resulted from rethinking
traditional medical ethics in the light of new moral problems arising
out of advances in medical science and technology. Applied
philosophers, ethicists and lawyers have devoted considerable energy
to exploring the dilemmas emerging from modern health care practices
and their effects on the practitioner-relationship.
Because this is the first exploratory study of this important question, we do not
pretend to have the final answers. The monetary estimates presented in this report
represent only part of the full economic costs of health inequalities, and the potential
benefits of reducing these inequalities. It is likely that a strong economic case for
reducing health inequalities can be made.
Women leak, inevitably and often bountifully. Menstrual blood, birth fluids, breast milk
and sometimes tears lead us to be seen as leakier than men at a physical level. Women are
often seen to work through a network of relationships, a web, rather than the hierarchy of
male decision-making (Gilligan 1982). Within such a web of relationships, emotions,
knowledge and other personal attributes flow, often freely, sometimes unconsciously.
Dirt is defined by Mary Douglas as ‘matter out of place’ (Douglas 1966).
To begin, at the left of the figure, trends in risk factors or biological markers
such as cholesterol and other lipids, weight, and indicators of insulin regulation are
separate markers of underlying health and population propensity to disease. At the
population level, the age of onset of these factors generally precedes the onset of
related diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The second box includes
diseases, conditions, and impairments.
It is remarkable to see the rapid increase in interest in the health of men since
the mid-1980s. We have moved from a position where there was almost
complete silence on the subject, an absence that was reflected not only in
policy and clinical practice but also within the academic community, to this
now being recognized as an area of major importance.
Over 25 million people in the UK spend a large part of their lives
at work. It stands to reason that a psychologically healthy
workforce and a supportive work environment will benefit staff
and employers alike. In a Confederation of British Industry (CBI)
survey of over 800 companies, 98% of respondents said they
thought that the mental health of employees should be a
company concern. Similarly, the large majority (81%)
considered that the mental health of staff should be part of
Human rights are legally guaranteed by
human rights law, protecting individuals and
groups against actions that interfere with fundamental
freedoms and human dignity.(3) They
encompass what are known as civil, cultural,
economic, political and social rights. Human
rights are principally concerned with the relationship
between the individual and the state.
Governmental obligations with regard to
human rights broadly fall under the principles
of respect, protect and fulfil.