We come across an era of strong and even more unusual individual claims, while the solution to often conflicting demands becomes increasingly elusive and parochial. One of the most intriguing philosophical questions is how to link human responsibility to those consequences of action which no one can fully foresee but, nevertheless, which no one can afford to neglect. Many biotechnological challenges are of this nature.
Our study panel began deliberations with significantly divergent
views on the meaning of the concept of “psychological consequences”
and the definition of terrorism. In addition we had many perspectives on
the appropriate preventive and therapeutic roles of public health and
mental health systems with respect to the psychological consequences of
terrorism. We agreed that terrorism affected humans in all walks of life
and that societal terrorists are as diverse as the individuals they terrorize
In the past few decades, the European workforce has seen a substantial rise in the
number of employed women. There is an increasing trend in women entering most
occupations while still carrying the responsibilities of domestic labor. Professional
and domestic demands can be overwhelming and diff cult to balance, thus placing
women in a very sensitive yet powerful position.
This book is a response to that need for a synthesis. It contains 17 chapters, each prepared by authors who are internation- ally recognized for their knowledge and expertise in a particular area of soil/plant biology.
Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has
been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education,
and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization
is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health
determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation,
consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently
by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.
As Christine Ammer notes, the underlying
assumption of The Encyclopedia of Women’s
Health, her classic and concise reference for women’s
health, is that “every woman wants to take
responsibility for her own health.” By helping us
understand how our bodies work, the marvel of our
bodies’ normal functions and the profound consequences
of its malfunctions, and the care and treatments
available to us, she helps us to take charge
of our own health.
Women's risk for many diseases increases at menopause, which occurs at a median age of 51.4 years. In the industrialized world, women spend one-third of their lives in the postmenopausal period.
Estrogen levels fall abruptly at menopause, inducing a variety of physiologic and metabolic responses. Rates of cardiovascular disease increase and bone density begins to decrease rapidly after menopause.
In the United States, women live on average about 5 years longer than men, with a life expectancy at birth in 2004 of 80.4 years, compared to 75.2 years in men.
“Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock
core of the earth and the living things on its surface. It is the foothold for the plants we
grow. Therein lays the main reason for our interest in soils.” --- Roy W. Simonson,
USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1957.
The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was probably the first scientist to
examine a soil profile and suggest factors responsible for the structure of the various
Having worked in and traveled to many countries, most recently as the Ambassador
and Permanent Representative of Thailand to the United Nations, I have
seen people in different societies react to trauma in various ways. While experts
contributed to this important book, Trauma Psychology: Issues in Violence, Disaster,
Health, and Illness, I share my perspectives from serving the people of Thailand and
other nations and from my experiences in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami that
struck the cities and towns in the Indian Ocean rim, including Thailand.
As a scientist who has worked for more than 40 years to find cures for infectious
disease, I find the idea that terrorists would use biological agents as a
weapon to be anathema. It violates the fundamental values of the life sciences that
I and my colleagues hold dear: that science is a vital tool for improving life and
the health of our planet and enhancing our understanding of the natural world.
My own work has focused on cholera, a disease responsible for the death
of thousands of people around the world every year.
It is imperative that the health care professional have knowledge of medical law, ethics, and
bioethics so that the client may be treated with understanding, sensitivity, and compassion.
No matter what the professional’s education and experience, any direct client contact involves
ethical and legal responsibility. It also is imperative that this knowledge be used to
provide the best possible service for the physician employer. Our goal is to provide the
health care professional with an adequate resource for the study of medical law, ethics, and
While there appears to be a rising incidence of problem drinking in the elderly, there are
also reports that low risk drinking may provide benefits to older populations. Indeed.
arguably most of the supposed benefits of alcohol consumption are to be found in older
people. So, for example, the claimed protective effect of alcohol in regard to
cardiovascular disease applies to the late middle aged and elderly. For this reason, the
recommended optimum level of alcohol consumption for health is higher for the elderly
than the young.
Despite these factors, children’s mental health has so far been paid insufficient attention
in schools. Teachers are uniquely placed to influence the mental health of children and
young people. As well as being in a position to recognise the symptoms of mental health
difficulties at an early stage, they can enhance the social and emotional development of
children and foster their mental well-being through their daily responses to pupils.
In many parts of the world, where medicines are not readily available
or affordable, the public continue to rely on medicines used traditionally
in their cultures. At the same time, affluent consumers in the industrialized
world are spending their own money on healthcare approaches
that fall outside what has been considered mainstream medicine. A growing
body of national and international studies highlight the reality that
there is exponential growth of global interest in and use of traditional (i.e.
indigenous), complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM).
The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic
globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in
the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality
has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved
technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of
epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been
considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.
Environmental health decision making can be a complex undertaking, as
there is the need to navigate and find balance among three core elements: science,
policy, and the needs of the American public. Much of environmental
health decision making started in the 1950s and 1960s and was focused on
health effects of simple environmental exposures. However, scientific knowledge
has rapidly changed as new technologies and new insights into the complexity
of environment–health interactions have emerged.
As we reported in May 2007 , the TCF “implementation” deadline tested whether
firms were implementing necessary changes in a substantial part of their business. Firms
were expected to have allocated appropriate resources and responsibilities, developed
plans and processes, and created capability to meet the TCF principle. We would expect
a firm’s implementation plan to identify and tackle any gaps in their ability to ensure
customers are treated fairly, including the designing and selling of PPI.
The Wisconsin Family Health Survey (FHS) collects information about health insurance coverage, health
status, health problems and use of health care services among Wisconsin residents. This survey began in
1989 and has been conducted annually since then. This report is based on responses collected in 2008,
the same year that the BadgerCare Plus health insurance program was implemented (February 2008).
The survey results presented in this report are representative of Wisconsin household residents, who
constitute approximately 97 percent of all persons residing in the state.
A common approach to adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends is to use semiparametric
models which incorporate a smooth function of time. The use of nonparametric smoothing
in time series models of air pollution and health was suggested in Schwartz (1994a), where
generalized additive Poisson models were used with LOESS smooths of time, temperature,
dewpoint temperature and PM10. This approach can be thought of as regressing residuals from
the smoothed dependent variable on residuals from the smoothed regressors.