Artificial neural networks are learning machines inspired by the operation of
the human brain, and they consist of many artificial neurons connected in parallel.
These networks work via non-linear mapping techniques between the inputs
and outputs of a model indicative of the operation of a real system. Although
introduced over 40 years ago, many wonderful new developments in
neural networks have taken place as recently as during the last decade or so.
Healthcare and healthcare delivery are currently undergoing major changes worldwide as they are increasingly
being transformed through the application of technology. Over the past several decades a wide
variety of information technologies have been deployed within an ever increasing variety of healthcare
settings (ranging from clinical to hospital, community and home settings) in an effort to streamline and
modernize healthcare delivery.
James Aaron Quick is the Chief Executive Officer for Polaris, a South
Carolina Corporation. He has served in this capacity since 1989. As the
Senior Instructional Specialist for Polaris, he has spoken before thousands
of potential grant seekers from the fields of education, healthcare, and
nonprofit management. He has written successful grant proposals for over
10 years, for projects ranging from $10,000 to $7.9 million to grant makers
including federal sources, foundations, and corporations.
Since the World Wide Web became widely available in the
mid 1990s, Web-based applications have developed rapidly.
The Web has come to be used by a range of people for many
different purposes, including online banking, e-commerce,
distance education, social networking, data sharing, collaborating
on team projects, and healthcare-related activities.
Effective user interactions are required for a Web site
to accomplish its specific goals, which is necessary for an
organization to receive a proper return on investment or other
The population of disabled elderly in the United States is
growing rapidly. The number of Americans who will suffer
functional disability due to arthritis, stroke, diabetes,
coronary artery disease, cancer, or cognitive impairment is
expected to increase at least 300 percent by 2049.1
Although people tend to develop chronic conditions as they
age, growing old does not have to mean becoming disabled.
Today the emphasis in health and medical care is on prevention.
The American Medical Association Guide to Talking to Your
Doctor focuses on the importance of an effective patient-doctor
relationship in improving and maintaining your health and
reducing your health risks. Use this book as a tool to become an
informed, active healthcare participant and to take control of
your health and medical care.
Nonetheless, ﬁlm did not start out well meshed with human perceptual and cognitive
systems. Instead, it has evolved slowly over the last 120 years. Early in the 20th century,
frame presentation rates were increased to make the ﬂicker of the successive images less
aversive. At the same time cuts, dissolves, and fades were used to denote shots within the
same scene, across scenes, and across larger ﬁlmsegments (acts), respectively. But later the
use of dissolves and fades as visual cues to ﬁlmstructure was found to be largely unnecessary.
This is a moment when an older fascination with
looking (at the mother's face, for an obvious example) collides with the initial
inklings of self-awareness. Hence it is the birth of the long love affair/despair
between image and self-image which has found such intensity of expression in film
and such joyous recognition in the cinema audience.
Since 2003, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), together with its partners in the
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), has reported on progress and opportunities for improving
health care quality. With this fifth annual National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR), these reports will
have provided more than 50,000 data points about health care quality in the United States.
When we suffer personally, and when we encounter the suffering of
another person, we are confronted with many questions. A taken-forgranted
and apparently robust future now jeopardized leaves in its place
a hollow of uncertainty and fragility. Painfully unsettling, suffering seems
to call forth a natural human proclivity to distance oneself from the specter
of vulnerability. Understandably there is a tendency for healthcare
professionals to protect ourselves from the ravages of suffering encountered
in the lives of the persons we care for.
Through a long and rewarding career in nursing I have been privileged to
support and learn from many about the wellness-illness patterns that mark
the human experience. It is frequently an illness event that slows us down, inviting
us to step outside normal routines to reevaluate the beliefs and patterns
that create the life we live. Cares of the day become insignificant when one is
confronted with one’s mortality. The focus shifts to the deeper questions of
In official statistics, it is not always easy to distinguish independently owned companies. If, for example,
employment data is collected at the establishment level then it is likely that these statistics will include
a significant proportion of units owned by larger firms. Yet, from a policy viewpoint the characteristics of the
owner-managed independent business are substantially different from those of the small subsidiary firm
of a large organisation. Such characteristics radically affect SME responses to policy initiatives.
The FDA also has jurisdiction over screening and testing of reproductive
tissues, such as the eggs and sperm that will be implanted in human
recipients. Regulations issued by the agency contain strict requirements for
egg and sperm donors, including thorough medical histories, identification
controls, freedom from infectious diseases, and rigorous inspection of the
facilities in which these tissues are handled. Inspectors can order the recall or
destruction of tissue that is infected with a communicable disease.
This book is about change in the management of public services – how
much of it and what consequences. For over two decades the goal of
restructuring welfare provision has been at the heart of UK government
policy. Under the Conservatives the focus was on controlling expenditure
and re-organising services to make professionals more accountable
for resource decisions. In health, education and social care, the objective
was to install a system of managed provision heavily influenced by
the practices of private firms.
Micro, small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) make important contributions to economic and
social development. In all economies they constitute the vast majority of business establishments, are
usually responsible for the majority of jobs created and account for one third to two thirds of the turnover
of the private sector. In many countries they have been the major engine of growth in employment and output
over the last two decades. In developing countries they are seen as a major ‘self-help’ instrument for
Outgoing EU environment commissioner Margot Wallström has vowed to continue
promoting environmentally sustainable policies when she becomes communications
commissioner on 1 November.
The Swede's experience and seniority in the new
Commission could make her an influential political ally to incoming EU environment
commissioner Stavros Dimas.
"I firmly believe that sustainable development is the only way in which we can ensure
continued human welfare and a fair distribution of our wealth," Ms Wallström said.
As a healthcare software executive and public policy expert, Justin Barnes manages Greenway’s
Strategy, Marketing, Corporate Development and Government Affairs departments. With a
background in healthcare information technology (HIT), corporate operations and legislative
policy, Barnes is responsible for building and executing Greenway’s corporate strategy, industry
and government relations.
At present, the main field of biosensor applications is still the determination of blood glu‐
cose, as over 90% of all commercial biosensors are developed for diabetes control. However,
regardless of the remarkable success in the development of glucose biosensors, there are nu‐
merous other emerging fields to be addressed, particularly the monitoring of environment,
healthcare and medical diagnostics.
With parallel breakthroughs occurring in molecular biology and nanoscience/technology, the newly
recognized research thrust on “nanomedicine” is expected to have a revolutionary impact on the
future of healthcare. To advance nanotechnology research for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and
treatment, the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Alliance for
Nanotechnology in Cancer in September 2004 and has pledged $144.3 million in the next five years
(for details, visit http://nano.cancer.gov).