More than twenty years after the idea of this Carotenoids book series was first discussed, we
finally reach the end of the project with Volume 5, which covers the functions and actions of
carotenoids in human nutrition and health. In 1971, in Isler’s book Carotenoids, functions of
carotenoids and vitamin A were covered in just two chapters.
One debate I have been hearing for years, in the audit profession,
is the issue of auditor independence. As a public accountant and
CPA I was well aware of the need for independence. When I
became a CAE, I studied the IIA Standards and the audit indepen-
dence issue. However, the popular theory that, as IA, we could
not design controls improvement, sent me into many healthy
debates with my contemporary CAEs, directors, and managers.
I was told if we ‘‘designed controls’’ we could not independently
audit them. With this I disagreed in general.
Antioxidant molecules have been shown to counteract oxidative stress in laboratory
experiments (for example, in cells or animal studies). However, there is debate as to whether
consuming large amounts of antioxidants in supplement form actually benefits health. There is
also some concern that consuming antioxidant supplements in excessive doses may be harmful.
Vegetables and fruits are healthy foods and rich sources of antioxidants. Official U.S.
Government policy urges people to eat more vegetables and fruits.