Electricity is an invisible force that is used to transfer
energy into heat, light, intelligence, or motion. Electricity
is explained in terms of electrical charge, potential differ-
ence (or voltage), electrical charge flow (or current), and
resistance to current flow. Figure 1-1 graphically illus-
trates electron flow through a conductor by comparing it
with water flow through a pipe. The normal unit of current
measurement is the ampere, whereas the normal unit of
voltage measurement is the volt. The unit of opposition to
current flow, or resistance, is the ohm...
A heat exchanger is a vessel that transfers heat energy from one process stream to another. A common physical configuration for heat exchangers is a shell and tube exchanger, where a bundle of tubes sits inside a shell. There is no mixing of fluid between the shell and the tubes.
MODERN POWER-PLANT CYCLES AND EQUIPMENT
CYCLE ANALYSES 1.4 Choosing Best Options for Boosting Combined-Cycle Plant Output 1.4 Selecting Gas-Turbine Heat-Recovery Boilers 1.10 Gas-Turbine Cycle Efﬁciency Analysis and Output Determination 1.13 Determining Best-Relative-Value of Industrial Gas Turbines Using a LifeCycle Cost Model 1.18 Tube Bundle
HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING
ECONOMICS OF INTERIOR CLIMATE CONTROL 16.2 Equations for Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Calculations
Required Capacity of a Unit Heater
Determining Cooling-Tower Fan Horsepower Requirements 16.12 Choosing an Ice Storage System for Facility Cooling 16.13 Annual Heating and Cooling Energy Loads and Costs 16.22 Heat Recovery Using a Run-Around System of Energy Transfer 16.24 Rotary Heat Exchanger Energy Savings 16.26 Savings from ‘‘Hot-Deck’’ Temperature Reset 16.28 Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger Performance 16.
The inspiration for Building Systems for Interior Designers
came when I tried to teach interior design students
about all the ways buildings support our activities and
physical needs—without an adequate textbook. I needed
an approach that supported the special concerns of the
interior designer, while connecting those issues to the
work of the rest of the building design team.
HEAT TRANSFER AND HEAT EXCHANGE
Selecting Type of Heat Exchanger for a Speciﬁc Application 11.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Size
Boiler-Tube Steam-Generating Capacity
Heat Exchanger Actual Temperature Difference 11.6 Fouling Factors in Heat-Exchanger Sizing and Selection 11.8 Heat Transfer in Barometric and Jet Condensers 11.10 Selection of a Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger 11.12 Spiral-Type Heating-Coil Selection
Refrigeration Required to Cool an Occupied Building 12.1 Determining the Displacement of a Reciprocating Refrigeration Compressor 12.4 Heat-Recovery Water-Heating from Refrigeration Units 12.6 Computing Refrigerating Capacity Needed for Air-Conditioning Loads
PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES
FACILITIES PLANNING AND LAYOUT 15.1 Water-Meter Sizing and Layout for Plant and Building Water Supply 15.1 Pneumatic Water Supply and Storage Systems 15.8 Selecting and Sizing Storage-Tank Hot-Water Heaters 15.11 Sizing Water-Supply Systems for High-Rise Buildings 15.14 PLUMBING-SYSTEM DESIGN 15.23 Determination of Plumbing-System Pipe Sizes 15.23 Design of Roof and Yard Rainwater Drainage Systems 15.29 Sizing Cold- and Hot-Water-Supply Piping 15.32 Sprinkler-System Selection and Design 15.
During the past 20 years, design and operation of the comfort systems for buildings have been transformed
because of energy conservation imperatives, the use of computer-based design aids, and major advances
in intelligent management systems for buildings. In the 1970s, rules of thumb were widely used by
designers. Today, a strong analytical basis for the design synthesis process is standard procedure. This
handbook describes the latest methods for design and operation of new and existing buildings.
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL BRAKES
Brake Selection for a Known Load 24.1 Mechanical Brake Surface Area and Cooling Time 24.3 Band Brake Heat Generation, Temperature Rise, and Required Area 24.6 Designing a Brake and Its Associated Mechanisms 24.8 Internal Shoe Brake Forces and Torque Capacity 24.15 Analyzing Failsafe Brakes for Machinery
HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN
Determining Response Time of PilotOperated Solenoid-Energized Spool Valves in Hydraulic Systems 25.1 Hydraulic-System Reservoir and Heat Exchanger Selection and Sizing 25.12 Choosing Gaskets for Industrial Hydraulic Piping Systems 25.19 Computing Friction Loss in Industrial Hydraulic System Piping
Analysis of Solar Electric Generating System Loads and Costs 17.1 Economics of Investment in an Industrial Solar-Energy System 17.4 Designing a Flat-Plate Solar-Energy Heating and Cooling System 17.6 Determination of Solar Insolation on Solar Collectors Under Differing Conditions 17.13 Sizing Collectors for Solar-Energy Heating Systems
Recent 40 years have witnessed considerable advances in experimental, theoretical and
calculation approaches as well as in industrial utilizations. In this way, this book aims
to bring together current progresses in some special heat transfer fields contributing to
the dissemination of high-quality research efforts.
One of the main missions of the Abdus Salam International Centre for
Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, founded in 1964, is to foster the growth
of advanced studies and scientific research in developing countries. To this
end, the Centre organizes a number of schools and workshops in a variety of
physical and mathematical disciplines.
Heat transfer calculations in different aspects of engineering applications are essential to aid engineering design of heat exchanging equipment. Minimizing of computational time is a challenging task faced by researchers and users. Methodology of calculations in some application areas are incorporated in this book, such as differential analysis of heat recoveries with CFD in a tube bank, heating and ventilation of equipment and methods for analytical solution of nonlinear problems.
Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. The objectives of Chapter 7 are to: Apply the second law of thermodynamics to processes; define a new property called entropy to quantify the second-law effects; establish the increase of entropy principle; Calculate the entropy changes that take place during processes for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal gases.
Source: HANDBOOK OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
STEAM GENERATION EQUIPMENT AND AUXILIARIES
Determining Equipment Loading for Generating Steam Efﬁciently 4.2 Steam Conditions with Two Boilers Supplying the Same Line 4.6 Generating Saturated Steam by Desuperheating Superheated Steam
Determining Furnace-Wall Heat Loss
Converting Power-Generation Pollutants from Mass to Volumetric Units 4.10 Steam Boiler Heat Balance Determination 4.11 Steam Boiler, Economizer, and AirHeater Efﬁciency 4.14 Fire-Tube Boiler Analysis and Selection
Source: HANDBOOK OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
STEAM CONDENSING SYSTEMS AND AUXILIARIES
Design of Condenser Circulating-Water Systems for Power Plants 2.1 Designing Cathodic-Protection Systems for Power-Plant Condensers 2.7 Steam-Condenser Performance Analysis
Surface-Condenser Circulating-Water Pressure Loss 2.20 Surface-Condenser Weight Analysis
Steam-Condenser Air Leakage 2.16 Steam-Condenser Selection 2.17 Air-Ejector Analysis and Selection 2.18
Weight of Air in Steam-Plant Surface Condenser 2.23 Barometric-Condenser Analysis and Selection 2.