Heavy metal toxicity

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  • Cadmium is a heavy metal and a pollutant that can be found in large quantities in the environment from industrial waste. Its toxicity for living organisms could arise from its ability to alter thiol-containing cellular com-ponents. Glutathione is an abundant tripeptide (c-Glu-Cys-Gly) that is described as the first line of defence against cadmium in many cell types.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • Permanganate may be applied to sites as either potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). Where cost dominates over engineering factors at a site, potassium permanganate is the preferred chemical form because it is more widely available, less costly, and is available in solid form, which facilitates transport and handling. Where other factors are more important, the liquid form of sodium permangante is preferable.

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  • Toxic heavy metals, i.e. copper (II), lead (II) and cadmium (II), can be removed from water by metallurgical solid wastes, i.e. bauxite waste red muds and coal fly ashes acting as sorbents. These heavy-metal-loaded solid wastes may then be solidified by adding cement to a durable concrete mass assuring their safe disposal. Thus, toxic metals in water have been removed by sorption on to inexpensive solid waste materials as a preliminary operation of ultimate fixation. Metal uptake (sorption) and release (desorption) have been investigated by thermostatic batch experiments.

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  • Some of the POPs targeted by the Stockholm Convention are already virtually obsolete. Their toxic effects became obvious early on and they have been banned or severely restricted in many countries for years or even decades. Replacement chemicals and techniques are in place. The remaining challenge is to find any leftover stocks and prevent them from being used. Some developing countries may need financial support to dispose of these stocks and replace them with chemicals whose benefits outweigh their risks....

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  • The complexity of children’s environmental health (CEH) issues is compounded by the combination of legacy environmental issues, such as water quality and sanitation service delivery, with modern challenges such as transboundary contamination by persistent toxic substances, ozone depletion and hence ultraviolet and ionising radiation, global climate change, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals).

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  • Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological conditions....

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  • The balance sheets of life and non-life insurance companies reflect the importance of technical (insurance underwriting) risks for insurance firms. Life insurance companies typically have the greater part of their liabilities taken up by technical provisions, in some jurisdictions more than 80 percent. This reflects the amount that the firm is setting aside to pay potential claims on the policies that it has written. Correspondingly, more than 90 percent of the assets of life insurance companies comprise the investment portfolio held to support these liabilities.

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  • Soil contamination has severely increased over the last decades, mainly due to petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals from industrial wastes and human activities. The critical point regarding contaminated soil monitoring is the intrinsic difficulty in defining fixed monitoring variables and indicators as the establishment of any a priori criterion and threshold for soil quality can be still considered subjective.

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  • The final report will contain an introduction or overview of the organisation followed by an account of the units or areas visited by the inspection team and a description of practices which normally will refer to relevant data protection principles such as ‘fair processing’/‘fair obtaining’ or data retention. The final section of the report will contain an overall conclusion, set of findings and a series of recommendations. The inspection team will aim to achieve agreement with the audited entity regarding the text of the final report, but this is not always possible.

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  • The Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment 1 , as amended, known as the "EIA" (environmental impact assessment) Directive, requires that an environmental assessment to be carried out by the competent national authority for certain projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue, inter alia, of their nature, size or location, before development consent is given. The projects may be proposed by a public or private person.

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  • `Now you've got nothing to worry about, my dear,' he said, `except to get back your health and strength. I don't say anything about your looks because nothing affects them. You're a young woman and a very pretty one, and I have no doubt you'll marry again. But don't marry for love next time; it's a mistake; marry for position and companionship.' She laughed. She had had a bitter experience and had no intention then of ever hazarding again the risks of wedlock; it was odd that now she was contemplating doing exactly what the shrewd old lawyer had advised....

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  • The variables measuring the independence and financial expertise of the board and audit committees, the CEO’s influence on the board, and data on auditors’ fees were hand collected from the latest proxy statement dated before the announcement date of a restatement. We measure these variables before the restatement announcement because firms may change the structure of their board or audit committee or replace their CEOs after restating their earnings.

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  • Our setup allows us to disentan- gle the implications of these two alternative pricing mechanisms that are standard in the open-economy macro literature. In our model, di®erent assumptions regarding the pricing decisions of ¯rms are virtually inconsequential for the properties of aggregate variables, other than the terms of trade. In particular, the real exchange rate and the international relative price of ¯nal tradable goods behave similarly across the two price setting regimes.

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  • We believe that it is interesting to study the system and software architecture of environments which integrate the evolving ideas of computational grids, distributed objects, web services, peer-to-peer networks and message oriented middleware. Such peer-to-peer (P2P) Grids should seamlessly integrate users to themselves and to resources which are also linked to each other. We can abstract such environments as a distributed system of “clients” which consist either of “users” or “resources” or proxies thereto.

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  • The most discussed effect of global warming is the increase of temperatures, although this increase will not be homogeneous through the seasons, with the winters expected to warm up significantly more than the summers. In addition, changes in precipitation are also expected that could lead to increase or decrease of rainfall, snowfall and other water-related events. Finally, a change in the frequency and intensity of storm events could be possible, although this is probably the most uncertain of the effects of global warming.

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  • There is huge uncertainty about future budget deficits and their financing. Economists disagree about how quickly deficits should be reduced: some would stress deflation risks and others inflation risks. Even if economists were to agree, there would still be great uncertainty about political choices on macroeconomic policy. It is nevertheless certain that government debt/GDP ratios in major countries will continue to rise over the next few years. Even the optimistic G20 pronouncements do not envisage debt/GDP ratios in the advanced countries stabilising before 2016.

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  • Local institutional investors in Brazil—pension funds and mutual funds—have been less active in the equity market. For instance, mutual funds’ asset allocation has been concentrated in safe and liquid assets such as government bonds and repo transactions. Pension funds, whose return target is typically set to achieve a certain spread over the rate of inflation in the context of a high short-term interest rate environment, tend to invest in inflation-linked bonds rather than equities.

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  • Adolescents, currently about 20 percent of the world’s population, have special reproductive health concerns and face risks related to early sexual experience, marriage and fertility. A rise in the age of marriage globally has contributed to declines in adolescent fertility. However, up to 50 percent of women in some countries still marry or enter a union by age 18, with this figure rising to 70 per- cent by age 20. The proportion of young women married or in union by age 20 is closely linked to adolescent fertility and exposure to reproductive health risks....

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  • Even though the Committee is not currently proposing mandatory capital charges specifically for interest rate risk in the banking book, all banks must have enough capital to support the risks they incur, including those arising from interest rate risk. If supervisors determine that a bank has insufficient capital to support its interest rate risk, they must require either a reduction in the risk or an increase in the capital held to support it, or a combination of both.

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