Growth factors are a group of proteins that regulate a wide variety of cel-lular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, adhesion,
and apoptosis of target cells. They play crucial roles in the formation and
maintenance of tissue architecture in embryonic development and adult
Adiponectin acts as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that protects against
obesity-linked metabolic disease, which is generally associated with endo-plasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The physiological effects of adiponectin on
energy metabolism in the liver are mediated by its receptors.
Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential.
This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.
Control analysis of the glycolytic flux was carried out in two fast-growth
tumor cell types of human and rodent origin (HeLa and AS-30D, respect-ively). Determination of the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the 10 glycolytic
enzymes from hexokinase to lactate dehydrogenase revealed that hexokin-ase (153–306 times) and phosphfructokinase-1 (PFK-1) (22–56 times) had
higher over-expression in rat AS-30D hepatoma cells than in normal
freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.
Hepatocyte growth factor like⁄macrophage stimulating protein
(HGFl⁄MSP) and hepatocyte growth factor⁄scatter factor (HGF⁄SF)
define a distinct family of vertebrate-specific growth factors structurally
related to the blood proteinase precursor plasminogen and with important
roles in development and cancer.
Liver metabolism is inﬂuenced by hormones and nutrients. Amino acids such as glutamine or leucine induce an anabolic response, which resembles that of insulin in muscle and adipose tissue. In this work, the signalling pathways and the eﬀects of insulin were compared to those of glutamine and leucine in isolated hepatocytes from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) has been shown to protect liver cells
from various toxins. However, the mechanism by which HSS protects
hepatocytes remains unclear. In this study, we established BEL-7402
cells that stably express HSS and analyzed the protective ability of HSS on
cells through mitochondrial permeability (MP).
Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serine protease initially
identified as a potent activator of hepatocyte growth factor⁄scatter factor.
Hepatocyte growth factor⁄scatter factor is known to be critically involved
in tissue morphogenesis, regeneration, and tumor progression, via its recep-tor, MET. In vivo, HGFA also activates macrophage-stimulating protein,
which has roles in macrophage recruitment and inflammatory processes,
cellular survival and wound healing through its receptor, RON....
Certain amino acids, like glutamine and leucine, induce an anabolic response in liver. They activate p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) involved in protein and fatty acids synthesis, respectively. In contrast, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses the energy state of the cell and becomes activated under metabolic stress, inactivates by phosphorylation key enzymes in biosynthetic pathways thereby conserving ATP.
Hepatic apoptosis is elevated in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
and is correlated with the severity of the disease. Long-chain saturated
fatty acids, such as palmitate, induce apoptosis in liver cells. The present
study examined adiponectin-mediated protection against saturated fatty
acid-induced apoptosis in the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.
Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) is a plasma protein that circu-lates as a single-chain proform. It acquires biological activity after prote-olytic cleavage at the Arg483–Val484 bond, a process in which serum
and cell surface serine proteinases have been implicated.
The specific features of the plasticity of adult stem cells are largely
unknown. Recently, we demonstrated the hepatic differentiation of human
adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs). To identify the
genes responsible for hepatic differentiation, we examined the gene expres-sion profiles of AT-MSC-derived hepatocytes (AT-MSC-Hepa) using
several microarray methods.
Post ischaemic cell calcium invasion has been described as
one of the main causes of graft failure. Protective effects of
calcium antagonists have been investigated but are not con-vincing and their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In
this work we tested the protective effect of a new calcium
inhibitor described to block a calcium current insensitive to
all known calcium blockers. Specific mapacalcine receptors
were first characterized on rat hepatocytesmembranes using
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Translational control plays a prominent role in the hepatocytic differentiation of HepaRG liver progenitor cells...
The conversion of UDP-glucuronate to glucuronate, usually thought to
proceed by way of glucuronate 1-phosphate, is a site for short-term regula-tion of vitamin C synthesis by metyrapone and other xenobiotics in isola-ted rat hepatocytes [Linster CL & Van Schaftingen E (2003) J Biol Chem
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Expression of hepatocytic- and biliary-specific transcription factors in regenerating bile ducts during hepatocyte-to-biliary epithelial cell transdifferentiation...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Hepatocyte growth factor incorporated chitosan nanoparticles augment the differentiation of stem cell into hepatocytes for the recovery of liver cirrhosis in mice
Hepatocytes located in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver
lobule show remarkable differences in the levels and activities of various
enzymes and other proteins. To analyze global gene expression patterns of
periportal and perivenous hepatocytes, enriched populations of the two cell
types were isolated by combined collagenase⁄digitonin perfusion from
mouse liver and used for microarray analysis.
Carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I is the flux-determining enzyme of the
ornithine cycle, and neutralizes toxic ammonia by converting it to urea. An
80 bp glucocorticoid response unit located 6.3 kb upstream of the trans-cription start site mediates hormone responsiveness and liver-specific
expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I.
Bilitranslocase is a carrier protein localized at the basolateral domain of
the hepatocyte plasma membrane. It transports various organic anions,
including bromosulfophthalein and anthocyanins. Functional studies in
subcellular fractions enriched in plasma membrane revealed a high-affinity
binding site for bilirubin, associated with bilitranslocase.