Chapter 2 covers the basic principles of inheritance, first described by Mendel, that form the foundation of the Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment. You will see in chapter 4 how these laws relate to chromosome segregation during meiosis.
Chapter 11 provides knowledge of DNA and Its role in heredity. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is the evidence that the gene is DNA? What is the evidence that the gene is DNA? How is DNA replicated? How are errors in DNA repaired? What are some applications of our knowledge of DNA structure and replication?
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.
Di truyền (tiếng Anh: heredity) là hiện tượng chuyển những tính trạng của cha mẹ cho con cái thông qua gen của bố mẹ. Trong sinh học, di truyền chuyển những đặc trưng sinh học từ một sinh vật cha mẹ đến con cái và nó đồng nghĩa với di chuyển gen, gen thừa nhận mang thông tin sinh học (hay thông tin di truyền). Ngoài ra, các đặc điểm về tính cách, nhận thức và tư duy của con cái có thể được tiếp nhận từ bố mẹ thông qua môi trường sinh họat gia đình (các thói quen,...
Phân tử ADN được coi là "cơ sở vật chất của tính di truyền ở cấp độ phân tử" (molecule of heredity). Tuy nhiên, thực chất về mặt cấu tạo, các ADN không phải một phân tử đơn thuần mà nó được tạo thành từ hai chuỗi polynucleotide, chúng liên kết với nhau và uốn quanh 1 trục tương tự 1 chiếc thang dây xoắn. Cấu trúc này được gọi là cấu trúc xoắn kép (double helix)
PRIOR to this, no complete, authentic, and authorized record of the work of Mr. Edison, during an active life,
has been given to the world. That life, if there is anything in heredity, is very far from finished; and while it
continues there will be new achievement.
An insistently expressed desire on the part of the public for a definitive biography of Edison was the reason
for the following pages. The present authors deem themselves happy in the confidence reposed in them, and in
the constant assistance they have enjoyed from Mr.
Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. Genes encode the information necessary for synthesizing proteins, which in turn play a large role in influencing (though, in many instances, not completely determining) the final phenotype of the organism. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions. Within organisms, genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes, where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules....
Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the
improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical
control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes
that change his raw material into finished product.
When did humans appear? What is it
that makes us different from the
rest of the animals? In what way
did language develop? Why is it so
important to have deciphered the sequence
of the human genome? This book offers
answers to these and many other questions
about the mysteries and marvels of human
evolution. Scientists maintain that modern
humans originated in Africa because that is
where they have found the oldest bones.
HereDe Lolmewrote not in his usual capacity as an observer andtheorist
of government, but as an engaged political participant. He embraced the
Repre ´sentants’ call for reformand republican renewal inseveral anonymous
polemics that contributed to the vibrant public debate thatGeneva’s rulers
found impossible to contain.Themost important of these publicationswas
the 1767 La puriﬁcation des trois points de droit souille ´s par un anonyme (The
puriﬁcation of three soiled points of law by an anonymous author).
France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology.
Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made
great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when
it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced
that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare
species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the
general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the
The following will be discussed in this chapter: What are the methods that scientists use to create recombinant DNA molecules; can scientists create genes from recombinant DNA molecules; and can scientists modify the heredity of an organism using recombinant DNA?
DNA is the physical repository of genetic information in the cell and the material of heredity that is passed on to progeny. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: How is this genetic information in the form of DNA replicated, how is the information rearranged, and how is its integrity maintained in the face of damage?
Uncovering Recurrent Submicroscopic Rearrangements As a Cause of Disease
For five decades since Fred Sanger's (1) seminal discovery that proteins have a specific
structure, since Linus Pauling's (2) discovery that hemoglobin from patients with sickle
cell anemia is molecularly distinct, and since Watson and Crick's (3) elucidation of the
chemical basis of heredity, the molecular basis of disease has been addressed in the
context of how mutations affect the structure, function, or regulation of a gene or its
When the first edition of this book was published in 1993, I commented how
notions regarding Tourette’s syndrome (TS) had undergone recent dramatic
changes. Major shifts in views of the disorder included identification of its
complex spectrum of clinical features (including tics and specific behavioral
disorders, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder), establishment of heredity as a major etiological
factor, and recognition that, rather than a rare disorder, it occurs quite
commonly in the population....
Estrogen (ES-truh-jin): A type of hormone made by
the body that helps develop and maintain female sex
characteristics and the growth of long bones. Estrogens
can also be made in the laboratory. They may be used
as a type of birth control and to treat symptoms of
menopause, menstrual disorders, osteoporosis, and
Fallopian tube (fuh-LOH-pee-in): A slender tube
through which eggs pass from an ovary to the uterus.
In the female reproductive tract, there is one ovary and
one fallopian tube on each side of the uterus.
he Theory of the Gene. The book summarizes theoretical conclusions that Morgan has drawn from more than fifteen years of empirical work. The geneticist had initially set out to challenge Mendel’s principles of heredity, but he writes that his work on the chromosomal transmission of genetic characteristics in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has instead confirmed them. His studies have, in addition, begun to identify the physiological bases of observed patterns of genetic inheritance.
Chapter 12 - Patterns of inheritance, after studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: List the approaches to science that made Gregor Mendel's genetic experiments successful, define Mendel's law of segregation, contrast dominant alleles with recessive alleles, define genotype and phenotype,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Human anatomy & physiology" presentation of content: The lymphatic system and lymphoid organs and tissues, the respiratory system, the digestive system, the urinary system, the reproductive system, pregnancy and human development, heredity,...and other contents.