We present an implemented XML data model and a new, simpliﬁed query language for multi-level annotated corpora. The new query language involves automatic conversion of queries into the underlying, more complicated MMAXQL query language. It supports queries for sequential and hierarchical, but also associative (e.g. coreferential) relations. The simpliﬁed query language has been designed with non-expert users in mind.
Data Model: A set of concepts to describe the structure of a database, and certain constraints that the database should obey.
Data Model Operations: Operations for specifying database retrievals and updates by referring to the concepts of the data model. Operations on the data model may include basic operations and user-defined operations.
One of the key tasks for analyzing conversational data is segmenting it into coherent topic segments. However, most models of topic segmentation ignore the social aspect of conversations, focusing only on the words used. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric model, Speaker Identity for Topic Segmentation (SITS), that discovers (1) the topics used in a conversation, (2) how these topics are shared across conversations, (3) when these topics shift, and (4) a person-speciﬁc tendency to introduce new topics. ...
In this chapter presenting the terminology and basic concepts that will be used throughout the lecture. This chapter discusses data models and defines the concepts of schemas and instances, which are fundamental to the study of database systems, discuss the three-schema DBMS architecture, provides a user’s perspective on what a DBMS is supposed to do, describe the types of interfaces and languages that are typically provided
by a DBMS,...
Appendix D - Network model, cover the network and hierarchical data models. Both these data models predate the relational model, and provide a level of abstraction that is lower than the relational model. They abstract away some, but not all, details of the actual data structures used to store data on disks. These models are only used in a few legacy applications.
Surface realisation decisions in language generation can be sensitive to a language model, but also to decisions of content selection. We therefore propose the joint optimisation of content selection and surface realisation using Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning (HRL). To this end, we suggest a novel reward function that is induced from human data and is especially suited for surface realisation.
Working on a Ph.D. can be lonely, frustrating, discouraging. In my own case, the
work was both made easier and more difficult by having been involved in
researching the subject matter of my dissertation for more than fifteen years: easier
because t had worked out many of the basic concepts and techniques by the time I
began the most recent phase; harder because there was by then a lot of material to
integrate, and my main application area (map ...
We propose a novel reordering model for phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) that uses a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to predicate reorderings of neighbor blocks (phrase pairs). The model provides content-dependent, hierarchical phrasal reordering with generalization based on features automatically learned from a real-world bitext. We present an algorithm to extract all reordering events of neighbor blocks from bilingual data.
This paper proposes a mistake-driven mixture method for learning a tag model. The method iteratively performs two procedures: 1. constructing a tag model based on the current data distribution and 2. updating the distribution by focusing on data that are not well predicted by the constructed model. The final tag model is constructed by mixing all the models according to their performance. 1
This chapter describe how a hierarchical network supports the voice, and data needs of a small- or medium-sized business. Describe the functions of each of the three levels of the hierarchical network design model, the principles of hierarchical network design, and the concept of a converged network. Provide examples of how voice and video over IP affect network design,...
The minimum number of Cs that can be associated with one A is 1. I know this because the existence of the C to A relationship is mandatory. The maximum number of Cs that can be associated with one A is unlimited (or many). I know this because the cardinality of the C to A relationship is 1-M.
We present a simple yet powerful hierarchical search algorithm for automatic word alignment. Our algorithm induces a forest of alignments from which we can eﬃciently extract a ranked k-best list. We score a given alignment within the forest with a ﬂexible, linear discriminative model incorporating hundreds of features, and trained on a relatively small amount of annotated data. We report results on Arabic-English word alignment and translation tasks. Our model outperforms a GIZA++ Model-4 baseline by 6.3 points in F-measure, yielding a 1.
One of the main obstacles to producing high quality joint models is the lack of jointly annotated data. Joint modeling of multiple natural language processing tasks outperforms single-task models learned from the same data, but still underperforms compared to single-task models learned on the more abundant quantities of available single-task annotated data. In this paper we present a novel model which makes use of additional single-task annotated data to improve the performance of a joint model. ...
In adding syntax to statistical MT, there is a tradeoff between taking advantage of linguistic analysis, versus allowing the model to exploit linguistically unmotivated mappings learned from parallel training data. A number of previous efforts have tackled this tradeoff by starting with a commitment to linguistically motivated analyses and then ﬁnding appropriate ways to soften that commitment.
This paper proposes a novel hierarchical learning strategy to deal with the data sparseness problem in relation extraction by modeling the commonality among related classes. For each class in the hierarchy either manually predefined or automatically clustered, a linear discriminative function is determined in a topdown way using a perceptron algorithm with the lower-level weight vector derived from the upper-level weight vector.
Lecture LAN Switching and Wireless - Chapter 1 describe how a hierarchical network supports the voice, video and data needs of a small and medium-sized business; describe how a hierarchical network supports the voice, video and data needs of a small and medium-sized business.
Describe how a hierarchical network supports the voice, and data needs of a small- or medium-sized business. Describe the functions of each of the three levels of the hierarchical network design model, the principles of hierarchical network design (aggregate connectivity, network diameter, and redundancy), and the concept of a converged network. Provide examples of how voice and video over IP affect network design. Select appropriate devices to operate at each level of the hierarchy, including voice and video components.
The principles of the relational model were first outlined by Dr. E. F. Codd in a June
1970 paper called “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks.” In this
paper, Dr. Codd proposed the relational model for database systems.
The more popular models used at that time were hierarchical and network, or even
simple flat file data structures. Relational database management systems (RDBMS)
soon became very popular, especially for their ease of use and flexibility in structure.
The relational database uses the concept of linked two-dimensional tables consisting
of rows and columns, as shown in Figure 1-2. Unlike the hierarchical approach, no
predetermined relationship exists between distinct tables. This means that the data
needed to link together the different areas of the network or hierarchical model need
not be defined. Because relational users don’t need to understand the representation
of data in storage to retrieve it (many such users created ad hoc queries against the
data), ease of use helped popularize the relational model....
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: Choosing simplified mixed models for simulations when data have a complex hierarchical organization. An example with some basic properties in Sessile oak wood (Quercus petraea Liebl.)...