While researching this book, I came across a letter in the journal Nature asking for
caution in the current trend for the use of humorous nomenclature for newly
discovered genes1, the author referring to the tumour suppressor gene Pokemon,
which I have briefly described in Chapter 4.
Carcinoma of the lung is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women.
Prognosis correlates strongly with stage of disease at presentation and to some degree with
the histological subtype of the tumor. Histological classifications of lung cancer were somewhat
arbitrary and a matter of convenience. However, multiple lines of differentiation are
often found within a single tumor, if it is sufficiently sampled.
Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm) 2–7 play
essential roles in eukaryotic DNA replication. Several
reports have indicated the usefulness of Mcm proteins as
markers of cancer cells in histopathological diagnosis.
However, their mode of expression and pathophysiological
significance in cancer cells remain to be clarified. We com-paredthe level of expressionofMcmproteins amonghuman
HeLa uterine cervical carcinoma cells, SV40-transformed
human fibroblast GM00637 cells andnormal human fibro-blastWI-38 cells....
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 84. Head and Neck Cancer
Head and Neck Cancer: Introduction
Epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck arise from the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area and typically are squamous cell in origin. This category includes tumors of the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Tumors of the salivary glands differ from the more common carcinomas of the head and neck in etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy. Thyroid malignancies are described in Chap. 335.
Until recently, surgical resection was considered the only option for treatment of kidney
cancer, especially renal cell carcinoma. The disease is relatively resistant to both radiotherapy
and chemotherapy, and although alternative systemic therapies such as interleukin-
2 immunotherapy and interferon have shown promise, objective response rates are
still quite low. Minimally invasive therapies have piqued the interest of researchers by
showing significant improvements in treatment and management of kidney cancer.
The tendinous chords, as functional extensions of the papillary muscles, perform the dual
function of maintaining valvular competence by preventing leaflet prolapse and
maintaining ventricular geometry by providing cross-ventricular support. The chords
originate from the apical portions of the papillary muscles or directly from the posterior
ventricular wall. They insert either into the free edge of the leaflets or on their ventricular
surface. Chords have been characterized a number of ways.
Study the clinical characteristics, endoscopy, histopathology, expression of proteins p53, Ki67, Her- 2/neu in colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps greater than or equal to 10 mm; study the relationship between the expression of proteins p53, Ki67 and Her- 2/neu with histopathological characteristics, lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps greater than or equal to 10 mm.
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, and infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been identified as the causal agent for this condition. The natural history of cervical cancer is characterized by slow disease progression, rendering the condition in essence preventable and even treatable when diagnosed in early stages.
Epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck arise from the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area and typically are squamous cell in origin. This category includes tumors of the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Tumors of the salivary glands differ from the more common carcinomas of the head and neck in etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy.
Many of the introductory comments in the first edition of this book
regarding the increasingly focused approach required of pathologists to
surgical cancer histopathology reports still pertain. In the intervening
period a number of trends have continued to develop that have required
Birth control pills: Using birth control pills lowers the risk of endometrial cancer. The
risk is lowest in women who take the pill for a long time. And this protection goes on for
at least 10 years after a woman stops taking this form of birth control. But you need to
look at all of the pros and cons when choosing a birth control method -- endometrial
cancer risk is only one factor to think about. It's a good idea to talk to your doctor about
the different methods of birth control to find the one that is best for...