History of medicine

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  • Stressing major themes in the history of medicine, this Second Edition stimulates further exploration of the events, methodologies, and theories that shaped medical practices in decades past and in modern clinical practice-highlighting the practices of civilizations around the world, as well as the research of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our current understanding of health and disease

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  • My primary purpose in writing and revising this book has been to provide an updated introduction to the history of medicine. Although the text began as a ‘‘teaching assistant’’ for my own one-semester survey course, I hope that this new edition will also be of interest to a general audience, and to teachers who are trying to add historical materials to their science courses or science to their history courses.

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  • I was stimulated to write these Outlines of Greek and Roman Medicine by a recent sojourn in the south-eastern part of Europe. The name of the book defines, to some extent, its limitations, for my desire has been to give merely a general outline of the most important stages in the advancement of the healing art in the two Empires to which modern civilization is most deeply indebted.

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  • To write a global history of medicine in Scotland is virtually impossible.

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  • Physical Examination The purpose of the physical examination is to identify the physical signs of disease. The significance of these objective indications of disease is enhanced when they confirm a functional or structural change already suggested by the patient's history. At times, however, the physical signs may be the only evidence of disease. The physical examination should be performed methodically and thoroughly, with consideration for the patient's comfort and modesty.

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  • In September 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) presented to the American people the goals of the NIH for medical research in the 21st century. Dr. Elias Zerhouni, who became director of the NIH in May 2002, had been Associate Dean for Research at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine before going to the NIH as the fi rst radiologist to head that agency. He had been trained in nuclear medicine while a resident in radiology at Hopkins.

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  • The best things in my Ufe have come to me by accident and this book results from one such accident: my having the opportunity, out of the blue, to go to work as H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.'s, research assistant at the Institute for the Medical Humanities in the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, in 1974, on the recommendation of our teacher at the University of Texas at Austin, Irwin C. Lieb. During that summer Tris "lent" me to Chester Bums, who has done important scholarly work over the years on the history of medical ethics....

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  • Among the many catalogs of museum collections, few describe objects related to the practice of medicine. This catalog is the first of a series on the medical sciences collections in the National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT). Bloodletting objects vary from ancient sharp-edged instruments to the spring action and automatic devices of the last few centuries. These instruments were used in a variety of treatments supporting many theories of disease and therefore reflect many varied aspects of the history of medicine.

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  • Students of medical history and practitioners should take delight in reading this new edition of Steven Friedman’s AHistory of Vascular Surgery. If the author was considered to be an aspiring writer with the publication of his original text in 1989, he must now be recognized as an accomplished contributor to our understanding of the historical underpinnings of one of medicine’s newest disciplines – vascular surgery. Afew tidbits reflect the breadth of this book.

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  • o other branch of digestive surgery has undergone the profound changes that have taken place in hepatic surgery in recent years, especially as a result of the application of functional segmental liver anatomy and intraoperative ultrasound in resective surgery. At the same time, the extraordinary progresses achieved in medical oncology together with the close cooperation between surgeons and oncologists has led to a watershed in this field of medicine, especially with respect to colorectal liver metastases.

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  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) provides recommendations for evidence-based screening (Table 4-3). In addition to these population-based guidelines, it is reasonable to consider family and social history to identify individuals with special risk (www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm). For example, when there is a significant family history of breast, colon, or prostate cancer, it is prudent to initiate screening about 10 years before the age when the youngest family member developed cancer.

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  • OVER THE PAST DECADE, alternative medical therapies have played an increasingly prominent role in American health care. In the nation’s grocery stores, homeopathic treatments and over-thecounter herbal remedies crowd aisles that were once largely devoted to analgesics, sore throat lozenges, and fruit-flavored, animal-shaped children’s vitamins. Eager to fill their beds and their coffers, hospitals advertise—even celebrate—the inclusion of nontraditional medical practices.

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  • .ANIMALS, DISEASE AND HUMAN SOCIETY In recent years, the issue of animal disease has seldom been out of the headlines. The emergence of BSE and the threat of food-borne infections such as E.coli and salmonella have focused public attention on the impact of animal disease on human society. However, the problem of animal disease is far from new. Animals, Disease and Human Society explores the history and nature of our dependency on other animals and the implications of this for human and animal health.

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  • Endophthalmitis This occurs from bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infection of the internal structures of the eye. It is usually acquired by hematogenous seeding from a remote site. Chronically ill, diabetic, or immunosuppressed patients, especially those with a history of indwelling IV catheters or positive blood cultures, are at greatest risk for endogenous endophthalmitis. Although most patients have ocular pain and injection, visual loss is sometimes the only symptom.

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  • Management The entire cutaneous surface, including the scalp and mucous membranes, should be examined in each patient. Bright room illumination is important, and a 7x to 10x hand lens is helpful for evaluating variation in pigment pattern. A history of relevant risk factors should be elicited. Any suspicious lesions should be biopsied, evaluated by a specialist, or recorded by chart and/or photography for follow-up. Examination of the lymph nodes and palpation of the abdominal viscera are part of the staging examination for suspected melanoma.

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  • Orbital Cellulitis This causes pain, lid erythema, proptosis, conjunctival chemosis, restricted motility, decreased acuity, afferent pupillary defect, fever, and leukocytosis. It often arises from the paranasal sinuses, especially by contiguous spread of infection from the ethmoid sinus through the lamina papyracea of the medial orbit. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, chronic sinusitis, thick mucous secretions, or dental disease is significant in any patient with suspected orbital cellulitis. Blood cultures should be obtained, but they are usually negative.

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  • Principles of Chemotherapy Medical oncology is the subspecialty of internal medicine that cares for and designs treatment approaches to patients with cancer, in conjunction with surgical and radiation oncologists. The core skills of the medical oncologist include the use of drugs that may have a beneficial effect on the natural history of the patient's illness or favorably influence the patient's quality of life. In general, the curability of a tumor is inversely related to tumor volume and directly related to drug dose.

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  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma The natural history of SCC depends on both tumor and host characteristics. Tumors arising on actinically damaged skin have a lower metastatic potential than those on protected surfaces. The metastatic frequency of cutaneous SCC, reported at 0.3–5.2%, occurs most frequently in regional draining lymph nodes. Tumors occurring on the lower lip and ear have metastatic potentials approaching 13 and 11%, respectively. The metastatic potential of SCC arising in scars, chronic ulcerations, and genital or mucosal surfaces is higher.

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  • In the autumn of 1994, a New Yorker cartoonist imagined a clinical scene in which a patient who is literally radiant with health, his body throwing off a nearly blinding aura of wellness, is nevertheless being sternly admonished by his physician because he has achieved his health the wrong way: “You’ve been fooling around with alternative medicines, haven’t you?” the doctor scolds.1 New Yorker cartoons constitute the most sensitive of barometers to shifting currents in America’s cultural atmosphere.

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  • On September 7th , Italy signed a bilateral agreement to promote projects in China ahead of the World Expo Shanghai 2010. The agreement is the latest of seven bilateral environmental accords signed by Italy so far this year, and it continues a three-year history of environmental cooperation between Italy and China. The agreement was signed by Corrado Clini, director general of Italy's Environment Ministry, and Xu Zuxin, the head of the Shanghai Environmental Protection Agency.

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