This paper presents a unification-based approach to Japanese honorifics based on a version of HPSG (Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar)ll]121. Utterance parsing is based on lexical specifications of each lexical item, including honorifics, and a few general PSG rules using a parser capable of unifying cyclic feature structures. It is shown that the possible word orders of Japanese honorific predicate constituents can be automatically deduced in the proposed f r a m e w o r k w i t h o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y specifying them....
Mrs. Li: Good morning, Mr.Wang.
Lǐ tài tai tai Wáng xiān shēng nín zǎo
Wáng xiān shēng zǎo
Mr. Wang: Good morning, Mrs. Li. Good morning to you.
Mrs. Li: How are you?
nín hǎo ma
Wáng xiān shēng wǒ hěn hǎo
Mr. Wang: I'm fine. Thank you.
Lǐ tài tai Wáng tài xiè xie nín
Mrs. Li: How is Mrs.
Like English, Korean has different styles of speaking and writing that reflect the
genre, the setting, and the audience. A chat in a gym with a friend employs quite
different words and constructions than a news report to a national TV audience.
This chapter focuses on the use of sentence-final verb endings, whose selection is
sensitive to whether the genre is written or spoken, to whether the setting is
formal or informal, and to how close the speaker feels to the hearer.
Greetings are formal and the oldest person is always greeted first.
Handshakes are the most common form of greeting with foreigners.
Many Chinese will look towards the ground when greeting someone.
Address the person by an honorific title and their surname. If they want to move to a
first-name basis, they will advise you which name to use.
The Chinese have a terrific sense of humour. They can laugh at themselves most readily
if they have a comfortable relationship with the other person. Be ready to laugh at
yourself given the proper circumstances....