Xem 1-20 trên 157 kết quả Hopping mechanism
  • Electrically conductive, ductile, thermally and mechanically stable composite films of polyaniline and sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) were introduced. A simple chemical route was followed to prepare composite films. The electrical conductivity of the films was controlled by changing the weight percent of conductive filler. Temperature dependent DC conductivity studies showed that the Mott three dimensional hopping mechanism can be used to explain the conduction mechanism in composite films.

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  • Nghị định thư Kyoto năm 1997 là cột mốc quan trọng trong nỗ lực toàn cầu về bảo vệ môi trường và phát triển bền vững. Lần đầu tiên chính phủ các nước tham gia nghị định thư đã chấp nhận sự ràng buộc về mặt pháp lý đối với mức phát thải khí nhà kính của mình.

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  • CHAPTER 10 STRESS ANALYSIS Franklin E. Fisher Mechanical Engineering Department Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, California and Senior Staff Engineer Hughes Aircraft Company (Retired) 10.1 STRESSES, STRAINS, STRESS INTENSITY 10.1.1 Fundamental Definitions 10.1.2 Work and Resilience DISCONTINUITIES, STRESS CONCENTRATION COMBINED STRESSES CREEP FATIGUE 10.5.1 Modes of Failure 10.8 191 191 197 199 199 203 205 206 10.9 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 COLUMNS 10.8.1 Definitions 10.8.2 Theory 10.8.3 Wooden Columns 10.8.4 Steel Columns CYLINDERS, SPHERES, AND PLATES 10.9.

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  • PART 1 MATERIALS AND MECHANICAL DESIGN CHAPTER 1 STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS Charles H. Drummond III Department of Materials Science and Engineering Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Effects of Structure on Properties 1. .2 Atomic Structure 1. .3 Bonding 1. .4 Simple Structures 1. .5 Crystallography 1. .6 States of Matter 1. .7 Polymorphism 1. .8 Defects 1.2 METALS 1.2.1 Structures 3 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 12 12 1.2.2 1.2.3 Alloys Noncrystalline Metals 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 1.3 CERAMICS 1.3.1 Crystalline Ceramics 1.3.2 Noncrystalline Ceramics 1.3.

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  • CHAPTER 19 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MECHANICAL DESIGN B. S. Dhillon Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 19.1 19.2 INTRODUCTION TQMINGENERAL 19.2.1 Total 19.2.2 Quality 19.2.3 Management DEMING'S APPROACH TO TQM QUALITY IN THE DESIGN PHASE 19.4.1 Product Design Review 19.4.2 Process Design Review 19.4.3 Plans for Acquisition and Process Control 19.4.4 Guidelines for Improving Design Quality 475 476 476 476 476 19.4.5 Taguchi's Quality Philosophy Summary and Kume's Approach for Process Improvement 480 19.5 19.3 19.

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  • CHAPTER 14 VIRTUAL REALITY—A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER T\ishar H. Dani Rajit Gadh Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin—Madison Madison, Wisconsin 14.1 14.2 14.3 INTRODUCTION VIRTUALREALITY VRTECHNOLOGY 14.3.1 VR Hardware 14.3.2 VR Software VRSYSTEMARCHITECTURE 319 319 14.6 320 320 322 323 14.7 14.5.2 14.5.3 Desktop VR Systems Hybrid Systems 325 325 325 325 325 326 VRFORMECHANICAL ENGINEERING 14.6.1 Enhanced Visualization 14.6.2 VR-CAD VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING/ MANUFACTURING AND VR 14.4 14.5 THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER GRAPHICS vs. VR 324 14.

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  • CHAPTER 9 COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND MECHANICAL DESIGN Carl Zweben Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space—Valley Forge Operations King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 9.1 INTRODUCTION 9.1.1 Classes and Characteristics of Composite Materials 9.1.2 Comparative Properties of Composite Materials 9.1.3 Manufacturing Considerations 9.2 REINFORCEMENTS AND MATRIX MATERIALS 9.2.1 Reinforcements 9.2.2 Matrix Materials 9.3 PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS 9.3.1 Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials 9.3.

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  • CHAPTER 20 RELIABILITY IN MECHANICAL DESIGN B. S. Dhillon Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 20.1 20.2 INTRODUCTION BASICRELIABILITY NETWORKS 20.2.1 Series Network 20.2.2 Parallel Network 20.2.3 k-out-of-n Unit Network 20.2.4 Standby System MECHANICALFAILURE MODES AND CAUSES RELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN 487 488 488 488 489 490 20.6 491 20.7 491 20.5.3 Failure Rate Modeling and Parts Count Method 20.5.4 Stress-Strength Interference Theory Approach 20.5.5 Network Reduction Method 20.5.6 Markov Modeling 20.5.

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  • CHAPTER 3 ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS Seymour G. Epstein J. G. Kaufman Peter Pollak The Aluminum Association, Inc. Washington, D.C. 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 PROPERTIESOFALUMINUM 3.3 ALUMINUMALLOYS 45 45 46 3.4 ALLOYDESIGNATIONSYSTEMS 46 3.5 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS 3.6 WORKINGSTRESSES 3.7 CHARACTERISTICS 3.7.1 Resistance to General Corrosion 3.7.2 Workability 3.7.3 Weldability and Brazeability 3.8 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 3.9 MACHININGALUMINUM 48 49 51 51 51 51 52 53 3.9.1 Cutting Tools 3.9.2 Single-Point Tool Operations 3.9.3 Multipoint Tool Operations 3.10 CORROSION BEHAVIOR 3.10.

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  • CHAPTER 18 FAILURE Jack Collins Department of Mechanical Engineering Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio CONSIDERATIONS Steve Daniewicz Department of Mechanical Engineering Mississippi State University Starkville, Mississippi 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 CRITERIA OF FAILURE FAILUREMODES 377 378 18.6 ELASTIC DEFORMATION AND YIELDING 382 FRACTURE MECHANICS AND UNSTABLE CRACK GROWTH FATIGUE AND STRESS CONCENTRATION 18.5.1 Fatigue Loading and Laboratory Testing 18.5.2 The S-N-P Curves— A Basic Design Tool 18.5.3 Factors That Affect S-N-P Curves 18.5.

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  • CHAPTER 2 8 BASIC CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN William J. Palm III Mechanical Engineering Department University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island 28.1 INTRODUCTION 28.2 868 28.7.3 28.7.4 28.7.5 28.8 CONTROL SYSTEM STRUCTURE 869 28.2.1 A Standard Diagram 870 28.2.2 Transfer Functions 870 28.2.3 System-Type Number and Error Coefficients 871 TRANSDUCERS AND ERROR DETECTORS 872 28.3.1 Displacement and Velocity Transducers 872 28.3.2 Temperature Transducers 874 28.3.3 Flow Transducers 874 28.3.4 Error Detectors 874 28.3.5 Dynamic Response of Sensors 875 ACTUATORS 28.4.

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  • CHAPTER 4 2 EXERGY ANALYSIS AND ENTROPY GENERATION MINIMIZATION Adrian Bejan Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Duke University Durham, North Carolina 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 42.5 INTRODUCTION PHYSICAL EXERGY CHEMICAL EXERGY 1 5 3 1 42.6 1 5 3 3 1 5 3 5 42.7 42.8 HEAT TRANSFER STORAGE SYSTEMS SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION POWER PLANTS 1 5 3 9 1 6 3 1 1 6 3 2 1 6 3 2 ENTROPY GENERATION MINIMIZATION 1 5 3 7 42.9 CRYOGENICS 1 5 3 8 42.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, we review two important methods that account for much of the newer work in engineering thermodynamics...

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  • CHAPTER 21 LUBRICATION OF MACHINE ELEMENTS Bernard J. Hamrock Department of Mechanical Engineering Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio SYMBOLS 21.1 LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS 21.1.1 Conformal and Nonconformal Surfaces 21.1.2 Bearing Selection 21.1.3 Lubricants 21.1.4 Lubrication Regimes 21.1.5 Relevant Equations HYDRODYNAMIC AND HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION 21.2.1 Liquid-Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings 21.2.2 Liquid-Lubricated Hydrodynamic Thrust Bearings 21.2.3 Hydrostatic Bearings 21.2.4 Gas-Lubricated Hydrodynamic Bearings 508 512 512 513 516 518 520 21.

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  • CHAPTER 22 SEAL TECHNOLOGY Bruce M. Steinetz NASA Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio 22.1 22.2 INTRODUCTION STATICSEALS 22.2.1 Gaskets 22.2.2 O-Rings 22.2.3 Packings and Braided Rope Seals 629 629 629 634 637 22.3 DYNAMICSEALS 22.3.1 Initial Seal Selection 22.3.2 Mechanical Face Seals 22.3.3 Emission Concerns 22.3.4 Noncontacting Seals for High-Speed/Aerospace Applications 22.3.5 Labyrinth Seals 22.3.6 Honeycomb Seals 22.3.7 Brush Seals 638 638 642 644 646 650 653 654 22.

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  • CHAPTER 4 1 THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS Adrian Bejan Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Duke University Durham, North Carolina 41,1 INTRODUCTION 1 3 3 1 41.2 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS 1 3 3 3 41.3 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS 1 3 3 5 41.5 RELATIONS AMONG THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES 41.6 IDEAL GASES 41.7 INCOMPRESSIBLE SUBSTANCES 1 3 3 9 1 4 3 1 1 4 3 4 41.8 TWO-PHASE STATES 1 4 3 4 41.4 THE LAWS OF 41.9 ANALYSIS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS FOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS 1 4 3 7 OPEN SYSTEMS 1 3 3 8 41.

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  • CHAPTER 4 9 SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS Jan E Kreider Jan F. Kreider and Associates, Inc. and Joint Center for Energy Management University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 49.1 SOLAR ENERGY AVAILABILITY 1 4 5 9 49.1.1 Solar Geometry 1 4 5 9 49.1.2 Sunrise and Sunset 1552 49. 1 .3 Quantitative Solar Flux Availability 1 5 5 4 SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS 1 6 5 0 49.2. 1 Flat-Plate Collectors 1 560 49.2.2 Concentrating Collectors 1564 49.2.3 Collector Testing 1 6 5 8 SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS 1 6 5 9 49.3.1 Solar Water Heating 1 6 5 9 49.4 49.2 49.3.2 Mechanical Solar Space Heating Systems...

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  • CHAPTER 4 COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS Howard Mendenhall OHn Brass East Alton, Illinois Robert F. Schmidt Colonial Metals Columbia, Pennsylvania 4.1 COPPER 4.1.1 Composition of Commercial Copper 4.1.2 Hardening Copper 4.1.3 Corrosion 4.1.4 Fabrication 4.2 SAND-CAST COPPER-BASE ALLOYS 59 59 60 60 60 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Selection of Alloy 4.2.3 Fabrication 4.2.4 Mechanical and Physical Properties 4.2.5 Special Alloys 60 62 62 68 68 60 4.1 COPPER Howard Mendenhall 4.1.

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  • CHAPTER 7 MAGNESIUM AND ITS ALLOYS Robert S. Busk Hilton Head, South Carolina 7.1 7.2 INTRODUCTION USES 7.2.1 Nonstructural Applications 7.2.2 Structural Applications 109 109 109 109 7.4 FABRICATION 7.4.1 Machining 7.4.2 Joining 7.4.3 Forming CORRROSION AND FINISHING 7.5.1 Chemical-Conversion Coatings 7.5.2 Anodic Coatings 7.5.3 Pointing 7.5.4 Electroplating 110 110 110 112 113 113 113 113 113 7.5 7.3 ALLOYSANDPROPERTIES 7.3.1 Mechanical Properties of Castings 7.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Wrought Products 7.3.3 Physical Properties 110 110 110 110 7.

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  • CHAPTER 58 STEAM TURBINES William G. Steltz Ttarboflow International Inc. Orlando, Florida 58.1 58.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THE HEAT ENGINE AND ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES SELECTED STEAM THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES BLADEPATHDESIGN 58.4.1 Thermal to Mechanical Energy Conversion 1765 58.4.2 58.4.3 58.4.4 1767 58.4.5 58.4.6 1772 58.4.7 1775 1776 58.4.8 58.3 58.

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  • CHAPTER 16 ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Warren C. Fackler, RE. Telesis Systems, Inc. Cedar Rapids, Iowa 16.1 INTRODUCTION 16.1.1 Scope 16.1.2 Overview 16.1.3 Design Techniques COMPONENT MOUNTING 16.2.1 General 16.2.2 Specific Components 16.2.3 Discrete Components 16.2.4 Printed Circuit Board Components FASTENINGANDJOINING 16.3.1 General 16.3.2 Mechanical Fastening 16.3.3 Welding and Soldering 16.3.4 Adhesives INTERCONNECTION 16.4.1 General 16.4.2 Discrete Wiring 16.4.3 Board Level 16.4.4 Intramodule 16.4.5 Intermodule 16.4.6 Interequipment 16.4.7 Fiber-Optic Connections MATERIALSSELECTION 16.5.

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