.Hospitals in a changing Europe
.European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series
Series Editors Josep Figueras is Head of the Secretariat and Research Director of the European Observatory on Health Care Systems and Head of the European Centre for Health Policy, World Health Organization Regional Ofﬁce for Europe. Martin McKee is Research Director of the European Observatory on Health Care Systems and Professor of European Public Health at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine as well as a co-director of the School’s European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition.
War, war, war. For me the beginning of the war was a torchlight tattoo on Salisbury Plain. It was held on one
of those breathless evenings in July when the peace of Europe was trembling in the balance, and when most of
us had a heartache in case--in case England, at this time of internal crisis, did not rise to the supreme sacrifice.
It was just the night for a tattoo--dark and warm and still. Away across the plain a sea of mist was rolling,
cutting us off from the outside world, and only a few pale stars lighted our stage from above.
The presentation of essential data concerning vitamines to succeeding groups of students has become
increasingly difficult with the development of research in this field. The literature itself has assumed a bulk
that precludes sending the student to original sources except in those instances when they are themselves to
become investigators. The demand on the part of the layman for concise information about the new food
factors is increasing and worthy of attention.
There is an urgent need to improve the health
of women and children, particularly in areas of Africa,
where Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4
and 5 are most lagging. This requires strong community
engagement and formal investments in national
health systems, especially for those least likely to be
reached through current national health strategies,
such as those in rural communities. Community
Health Workers (CHWs) have been internationally
recognized for their notable success in reducing morbidity
and averting mortality in mothers, newborns
PHI has often financed the delivery of larger treatment volumes by offering higher payments to
providers. Financial incentives linked to payment mechanisms exert a direct impact upon doctors’
productivity.32 This has contributed to a growth in the volumes of private hospital treatments in several
countries where doctors have both public and private sector engagements, as in Australia and Ireland
(Colombo and Tapay, 2003 and 2004b).
The fit between existing capacities and the health care needs of the
population remains less than ideal, but improvements have been made over the
past 15 years. In general, the average length of stay and hospital admission rates
have decreased since 1990, as have bed occupancy rates. However, capacity
for long-term nursing care in both the inpatient and outpatient setting is still
Members of the Office of Government Relations work with decision-makers at the local, state, and national levels to uphold the hospital’s mission of providing exceptional clinical care, research, and training for pediatric providers. The program has a special interest in, and commitment to, our community health programs, and works hard to develop and sustain systemic solutions to child health concerns like asthma, obesity and mental
The data collected and analyzed helps to inform
dental public health policy and programming.
It also provides a baseline for noting any
improvements that may occur as a result
of new oral health promotion and disease
prevention initiatives with the goal of
achieving better outcomes.
One of the reasons oral health was included as
a component of the CHMS was to enable future
evaluation of the association of oral health
with major health concerns such as diabetes,
respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.