Non coding endogenous RNAs were first discovered in the last decade of the previous
century. These new discoveries changed our views of the transcriptome landscape of
plant genomes and paradigms of the regulation of gene expression. With the beginning
of this century, we have witnessed an explosion of studies on small regulatory
RNAs that has yielded a basic understanding of the many types of small RNAs in
diverse eukaryotic species and how they are functioning as RNA–protein complexes
along the RNA silencing pathways.
A key consideration in deciding whether to establish a policy preference for organizing
cross-border banking groups as branches or subsidiaries is the balance between efficiency
and financial stability. From the perspective of policymakers, different organizational
structures have important stability implications, notwithstanding the “efficiency arguments”
that may favor branches.
I have developed a wonderful network of Italian therapists as well as having met colleagues from
other countries who also practice in Rome. In fact, I had the distinct pleasure of hosting the 1st
annual Rome Conference on Emotional Well-Being. The 2nd
conference is in the planning
process! I have also asked a panel of mental health professionals to present at the Mediterranean
Association of International Schools Conference with me in Florence in November.
In 1959, Richard P. Feynman, Professor of Physics at the California Institute of
Technology and Nobel Laureate, delivered an address at the American Physical
Society, which is given the credit for inspiring the field of nanotechnology. Published
in Engineering and Science, Feynman’s address entitled “Plenty of Room at the
Bottom” described a new field of science dealing with “the problem of manipulating
and controlling things on a small scale.
The bacterial Lsm protein, host factor I (Hfq), is an RNA chaperone
involved in many types of RNA transactions such as replication and stabil-ity, control of small RNA activity and polyadenylation. In this latter case,
Hfq stimulates poly(A) synthesis and binds poly(A) tails that it protects
from exonucleolytic degradation. We show here, that there is a correlation
between Hfq binding to the 3¢ end of an RNA molecule and its ability to
stimulate RNA elongation catalyzed by poly(A)polymerase I.