Households involved

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  • This study is dedicated to all the children of South Africa and to those organisations that work towards alleviating the plight of children in South Africa and worldwide. On behalf of the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, I would like to comment on the importance of The National Household HIV Prevalence and Risk Survey of South African Children. The study was commissioned by the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund and the Nelson Mandela Foundation as part of the larger Nelson Mandela/HSRC Study of HIV/AIDS 2002.

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  • Vietnam has considerable potential for ornamental fish production due to its tropical climate and abundance of natural aquatic resources. So far, Ho Chi Minh City has been recognized as an ornamental fish hub in Vietnam. The city currently has around 300 households involved in ornamental fish breeding, nursing and growing-out, and more than 300 ornamental fish shops. During 2002-2005, HCM City exported 2-3 million ornamental fish per year with an average annual turnover of 3-5 million USD.

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  • Taxation of financial intermediation receives surprisingly little ana- lytical attention, despite its practical importance both for national budgets and for the efficient functioning of the financial system. This volume is an attempt to provide a coherent overview of the policy issues involved.

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  • This study looks at whether Vietnam could adopt the Payment for Environmental Services (PES) approach as part of its national conservation strategy. Using a pilot study in the country’s uplands, it investigates how such a scheme might run and assesses its impact on the environment and on the local people’s livelihoods. Through a review of current Vietnamese conservation practice, it assesses the barriers to the adoption of such schemes and the factors that might encourage their implementation....

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  • In recognition of the importance of establishing gender equality around the world, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) was established as a separate fund within the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 1984. At that time, the General Assembly instructed it to “ensure women’s involvement with mainstream activities.”3 The Platform of Action resulting from the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women expanded this concept, calling it “gender mainstreaming”—i.e.

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  • A range of factors contributed to this situation, such as the lack of access to basic health facilities - only 40% of the population is in the coverage areas of basic health facilities, and only 9% of rural households surveyed in 2003 reported a health facility in their village;1 lack of female staff at the existing facilities particularly in rural areas; marked rural-urban disparities in availability of health facilities; and lack of infrastructure (roads and transport) and security that reduce mobility and access.

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  • Education and training are particularly important in the current crisis. In times of recession, budget constraints (in government, households and businesses) tend to reduce expenditure on education and training. On the other hand, due to rising unemployment, demand for training increases. Support for education and training during the current crisis can help displaced workers find new job opportunities and can thus support the restructuring process.

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  • We use data from the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS), which is administered every year in the UK. The annual sample includes between six and seven thousand households. For each household, an initial interview collects detailed demographic information. Immediately after the interview, each household member starts a expenditure diary, in which they record everything they buy during the next fourteen days. Diary expenditures are aggregated to “diary weeks” in the data, for reasons of confidentiality, resulting in two seven-day aggregates of expenditure for each individual.

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  • A drop in real income is bad enough, but individual households can make it worse by changing their collective savings behaviour. They have done so by turning home equity into consumption in the period 2003-2007 and started adding equity out of reduced incomes over the period 2008-2012. During the latter period banks became more cautious in their mortgage lending behaviour as evidenced by the substantial drop in new home mortgages granted, but new homes were still being built, so the total value of all homes did go up due to the home additions. If -as an approximate figure- one...

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  • The evidence does suggest that high-income households take tax increases into account in decisions about the timing of income and the form in which they receive income. For example, research on capital gains demonstrates that people may plan when they sell an asset if a pending law change will affect their taxes on income from the sale. Similarly, changes in the difference in tax rates between household and corporate income have been shown to produce shifts in the type of compensation taken by corporate executives and business owners....

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  • 270 households surveyed and interviewed. After analyzing the survey data, 30 households in Hai Thuong Commune, Phu Hai, Hai Lang district has been selected involved in the project. Each family chose a range from 3 to 15 Mong Cai sows. All households selected for breeding pigs, learning and sharing technical knowledge in the pig production.

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  • Besides the previously discussed papers about impacts of shocks at birth, our results are related to research on gender bias during early childhood. Much of the literature finds evidence favoring boys over girls (see Rose (1999) for evidence from India that gender bias in infant mortality drops significantly when districts experience higher rainfall or Dercon and Krishnan (2000) for evidence from Ethiopia that poor households are unable to smooth their consumption, with women bearing the brunt of adverse shocks).

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  • The logic of the basic process is to diagnose the gender condi- tions that inhibit growth, poverty reduction, and well-being in a par- ticular country; and then, based on this diagnosis, to work with the country to identify the gender-responsive development actions that would be strategic from the government’s point of view. Where such actions involve Bank assistance, gender considerations will be integrated into Bank operations in sectors that the diagno- sis suggests are critical for poverty reduction or economic growth, and quality and outcomes will be monitored.

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  • All the authors take for granted the importance of control in organisations. They see it as a common trait and inevitable in all human organisations (Flamholtz, 1983; Amat, 1992), making the control function one of the most basic and indispensable in business management, although in fact, control is only one of the elements that an organisation may avail of as a management system, although it is, unquestionably, the system that contributes most greatly to improving organisational performances (Blanco, 1984).

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  • In the U.K., the owners’ equity as a percentage of household real estate is not calculated in the Households’ net worth by asset and year statistics, unlike in the U.S Balance Sheet of Households and Nonprofit Organizations9 . However one can deduce from the available U.K. data that new housing starts from 2008 till 2011 have not led to an increased level of outstanding home loans. This means that individual households have repaid home mortgages and saved more to an extent of about £78.8 billion for the four year period 2008 to 2011. At the same time they have...

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  • The share of income going to the wealthiest one percent of households more than doubled between 1979 and 2007, from 10 to 23.5 percent. The concentration is even greater when wealth and assets are included. In 2007, the top five percent of households controlled 37 percent of all income, but 60 percent of all net worth. Even after accounting for taxes and transfers, the incomes of the top one percent (adjusted for inflation) grew 275 percent between 1979 and 2007, while those of the middle class grew less than 40 percent. Partly a result of the very large tax cuts...

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  • To maintain and promote the health of young women, mothers, girls, infants and children, GHI Kenya will utilize existing resources and build upon a variety of agency programs to increase health systems strengthening, to integrate health service provision and to create demand for services. The strengthening of these three areas will facilitate the building of effective health systems which will deliver a package of high quality integrated maternal and child health interventions along a continuum of care from household to community to health facility.

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  • Work and Employment. Women play an extremely important role in all dimensions of agricultural production. In certain regions, women's time input equals men's, but in other regions traditions restrict their work to the household where they are involved in crop processing (threshing, cleaning, drying, preserving) and also are in charge of most of the household-based activities (water and fuel collection, cooking, cleaning, sewing, tailoring, weaving, and child rearing). Women play an increasingly important role in opium production, livestock production and processing of dairy products.

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  • Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals, unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.

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  • The increasing number of countries for which a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) has been compiled testifies to the usefulness of this integrated data framework. Considerable resources are always involved in the construction of a SAM, for it provides a comprehensive description of an economy with emphasis on distributive aspects. This means that, unlike other data systems, incomes and expenditures of several categories of households and their relation to the production structure, the balance of payments and transactions by other institutions are shown.

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