Xem 1-20 trên 111 kết quả Human agents
  • My goal in this book is to introduce the reader to the evidence, both historical and contemporary, for how the reciprocal interactions between people and nature have developed, the urgency for action now to prevent truly disastrous consequences, and to make suggestions as to how we might go about doing so. While the book does not follow the usual organization for an introduction to human ecology, cultural ecology, or ecological anthropology text, the book covers much of this material in what I hope is a more engaging organization....

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • Over the last three decades, knowledge on the molecular biology of human cancers has vastly expanded. A host of genes and proteins involved in cancer development and progression have been defined and many mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and even tissue level have been, at least partly, elucidated. Insights have also been gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis by chemical, physical, and biological agents and into inherited susceptibility to cancer. Accordingly, Part I of the book presents many of the molecules and mechanisms generally important in human cancers.

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  • Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules! Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings.

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  • Introduction: An organophosphorus nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate, Figure 2.1) shows potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase; its development, production, stockpiling and use are being prohibited by the CWC international treaty as a chemical weapon together with those of sarin and soman. In addition, even material compounds for VX synthesis are being also controlled strictly. In the world history, there had been no records on the use of VX in any international dispute.

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  • Introduction: Chemical weapons (chemical warfare agents), such as sarin and soman, were developed to kill or injure humans by their toxic actions. They are called “nuclear weapon of the poor”, because the weapons are relatively stable during storage, cheap for production and relatively easily synthesized with basic knowledge on organic chemistry. Main advanced countries are making efforts to reduce chemical weapons existing in the world on the basis of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), after the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War.

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  • Introduction: Salicylic acid ( Figure 9.1) is being used as a keratolytic agent for treatment of corns or verrucae; the acid is included in adhesive plasters, ointments and liquid medicines as their ingredient for removing the stratum corneum. Since such products containing salicylic acid are easily obtainable, salicylic acid poisoning (salicylism) cases are relatively many especially for infants not older than 5 years. Its poisoning symptoms were reported to be headache, vertigo, tinnitus, bradyacusia, amblyopia and sweating [1].

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  • Introduction: Hypochlorite a (HClO) is a weak acid, which exerts oxidative action; it is being widely used in the salt forms for bleaching and other purposes. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) aqueous solution is usually used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent, fungicide and ink eraser, and is thus usually included in detergents for laundry. Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2, bleaching powder] is also used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant.

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  • Schistosomiasis is caused by digenetic blood trematodes. The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni. Two other species, more localized geographically, are S. mekongi and S. intercalatum. In addition, other species of schistosomes, which parasitize birds and mammals, can cause cercarial dermatitis in humans.

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  • Introduction: Muscle relaxants can be classified into the peripheral-and central-acting drug types ( Table 6.1). The drugs of the peripheral type are also called neuromuscular blocking agents. The peripheralacting muscle relaxants are being used for muscle relaxation upon endotracheal intubation and/or general anaesthesia for surgical operation. The central-acting muscle relaxants are used for treatments of painful muscle contracture caused by locomotorial disorders, and for relaxation of muscle stiffness caused by psychotic tension or by neurosis.

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  • Introduction: Cresol is being used for an antiseptic, disinfectant, maggot-killing agent and cresol soap solution. Since various kinds of more powerful and odorless disinfectants have nowadays become available in practical use, the frequency in the use of cresol seems decreasing. However, the cases of acute poisoning by cresol are still being reported at the present time. The toxic effects of cresol are due to its corrosive actions, resulting in the destruction of cell membranes and coagulation of proteins, and its suppressive action on the central nervous system [1].

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  • Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, and infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been identified as the causal agent for this condition. The natural history of cervical cancer is characterized by slow disease progression, rendering the condition in essence preventable and even treatable when diagnosed in early stages.

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  • Introduction: β-Lactum antibiotics constitute an important class of antibacterial agents being used extensively for both humans and food-producing animals to treat or prevent infections. The drugs occasionally cause human deaths due to anaphylactic shock during medical treatments, especially when they are parenterally administered without their prior intracutaneous tests. These cases are usually handled as medical accidents (malpractice), and subjected to autopsies and analysis of the drugs used. These antibiotics are composed of cephems ( Table 10.1) and penicillins ( Table 10.

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  • This  paper  discusses  debris  and  mud  flash  flood,  which  is  a  widespread  phenomenon  with different levels of damaging effects and repetition in the mountainous areas of Vietnam. There  are some sites where the flash flood with severe debris components has recurred many times and it  has  always  caused  heavy  loss  of  human  and  materials,  such  as  Lay  Nua  Commune,  the  Former 

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  • Numerous reports, including some from the National Research Council, have examined the relationship of diet to cancer. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributing factor to the onset or progression of some types of cancer and that a prudent selection of foods, including fruits and vegetables, and avoidance or decreased consumption of other foods might influence the risk to an individual of contracting cancer.

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  • A series of alpha-substituted 2’,5’-dihydroxychalcones bearing a cyanide, bromine, or methyl group at alpha-position were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, including B16, murine melanoma, HCT116 (colon cancer), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), and HUVEC (human umbilical venous endothelial cell). The synthesized chalcones showed significant cytotoxicity against most of cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.97 to 10 µg/mL.

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  • The past century has seen a tremendous expansion in the number of synthetic chemicals employed by humankind as materials, drugs, preservatives for foods and other products, pesticides, cleaning agents, and even weapons of war. An estimated 64,000 chemicals are currently in use commercially, with 5 billion tons being produced annually in the world. Some 4000 chemicals are used as medicinals and at least 1200 more as household products. An estimated 700 new chemicals are synthesized each year.

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  • The Human Developmental Toxicants Database (HumDevTox) is a chemical structure–chemical property–biological activity database for 50 known agents that adversely affect human development as a result of exposure prior to conception or during prenatal and postnatal development. The developmental effects elicited include growth retardation, death, structural abnormality, and functional deficits.

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  • Global agriculture is now at the crossroads. The Green Revolution of the last century that gave many developing countries such as India a breathing spell, enabling them to adjust the growth of their human populations better to the supporting capacity of their ecosystems, is now in a state of fatigue. Average growth rates in food production as well as factor productivity in terms of yield per unit of mineral fertilizer (NPK) are both declining.

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  • Entitites or computer programs that learn from their environment and can act based on what they have learned can be defined as intelligent agents. These agents can be as simple as triggering an alarm in case of a fire or as complex as human beings. Intelligent agents and their applications to solve real-world problems are getting smarter and diversified day by day.

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